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RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS
|Author :||Pauline Sheldon, John Knox & Kem Lowry|
|School/Work Place :||University of Hawaii, USA (Pauline Sheldon, Kem Lowry), Know and Associates, USA (John Knox)|
Most destinations are struggling to achieve sustainability for their economies, their environments, their cultures and their tourism industries. This laudatory, idealistic and complex process involves many sectors of the industry, the community, government, and a broad array of stakeholders. Different destinations are approaching the process with a variety of models and processes. There is much literature discussing how to achieve these goals (for example Swarbrooke, 2002, Bramwell and Lane, 2000) but each destination must work with its own individual system to achieve the best approach. The challenge becomes more difficult for mass tourism destinations, with a long history, well-established (often out-dated) infrastructures, often long-seated conflicts among stakeholders, and diverse and fragile eco-systems and cultures. Hawai'i is one of those destinations.
Case studies and research methodologies of different approaches to the challenges of sustainable tourism abound. Agenda 21 lays out a prototype for this and provides case studies of destinations that are implementing programs. The literature reports various approaches often involving: measurement or assessment of the situation, demand forecasting, stakeholder or community input to policy creation, information systems technology and a monitoring system. This study reports on a recent effort by the state of Hawaii to bring understanding, knowledge and policy to improve the quality and sustainability of tourism across the islands.