Author : Lesego S. Stone & Gyan P. Nyaupane
School/Work Place : University of Botswana & Arizona State University
Contact :
Year : 2015

Present-day Western approaches relating to nature and natural resources management assume that humans are independent from the natural world (Pierotti & Wildcat, 2000). Protected areas such as Yellowstone National Park were created with this narrative in mind.  This view of conservation and nature is deeply entrenched and wilderness is still celebrated by many as a place to rejuvenate and discover the purpose for life (DiSilvestro, 1993). This construction sees nature as a resource for human use and a challenge for the rational mind to conquer (Adams, 2003). Despite this worldwide acceptance of Western views on nature, Mackenzie (1988) acknowledges the wilderness-humankind separation provided a means through which British colonizers took over their African colonies’ land and created enclaves that could serve their interests.

In contrast to westerners’ beliefs, Southerners believe in the harmony between nature and society (Colchester, 2000). For most, there is knowledge on how to interrelate with nature (Redford and Stearman, 1993). Evidence indicates that even with hunter-gatherers and wildlife being a part of local diet and commodity trading, wildlife populations remained high (Murombedzi, 2003). This has been attributed to the use of local myths, policies, customs and religions that reinforced and regulated resource use (Hviding, 2003). These traditional strategies promote and support the conservation of nature while ensuring access to it (Murombedzi, 2003).

The creation of protected areas has had negative impacts on native communities; in Uganda, the Ik were removed from their traditional hunting grounds to allow for the establishment of Kidepo National Park while in Botswana, Basarwa were relocated to make way for Moremi National Park (Colchester, 2000). Hence, local resentments may occur. For instance, although for most White Americans protected places represent, beauty and national pride, the same lands symbolize deception, lost land, and continued oppression for many Native Americans who were displaced from their ancestral lands (McAvoy, 2002).

List of Articles
No. Subject Views Datesort
334 Think Tank XVI Polar bears, Climate Change, CSR and Sustainable Tourism 344 Jul 02, 2016

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Author: Jeremy Pearce 

Year: 2016 

333 Think Tank XVI Challenges of the development of sustainable products ... file 301 Jul 02, 2016

Tourism destinations have a responsibility to preserve their own mainstay. Sustainable product development can aid the longevity of a destination by supporting local environmental, social and economic aspects. This, however, requires a coord...

Author: Fabian Weber & Barbara Taufer 

Year: 2016 

332 Think Tank XVI Sustainable Tourism Managment on Small Island Destinat... file 1503 Jul 02, 2016

On December 11th, 2015 climate change negotiations came to a close after the COP21 – 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. Across media channels and climate protests the event was referred to as “the last chance summit”, w...

Author: Bonnie Lewtas & René Schmidpeter 

Year: 2016 

331 Think Tank XVI Corporate Social Responsibility: The Role of Modern De... file 467 Jul 02, 2016

Over the decades, tourism has experienced continued expansion; it is considered one of the fastest growing economy sectors in the world. Modern tourism is closely associated to development of the host-community and its surroundings. Coopera...

Author: Gabriela Estrella, Myrta Zemp & Urs Wagenseil 

Year: 2016 

330 Think Tank XVI Rural communities’ participation in the planning and m... file 344 Jul 02, 2016

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Author: Limpho Lekaota 

Year: 2016 

329 Think Tank XVI Towards Sustainable Tourism: Whatfactors most influenc... file 739 Jul 02, 2016

Tourism is a major activity for some Mediterranean economies. While the growth of tourism over the last few decades has had many positive effects, it has also harmed the environment when this growth has not been planned in a sustainable way...

Author: Arayeh Afsordegan, Mar Vila, NúriaAgell, Mónica Sánchez 

Year: 2016 

328 Think Tank XVI Responsible High Performance Sport Travel – Opportunit... file 249 Jul 02, 2016

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Author: Kerstin Heuwinkel 

Year: 2016 

327 Think Tank XVI The Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility: An ove... file 1222 Jul 02, 2016

In the tourism industry, whilst some companies have taken active steps towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), others are yet to adopt a responsible approaching to business. According to Betz (2010), CSR is a relatively new concept i...

Author: Susanne Reimann & Sandro Carnicelli 

Year: 2016 

326 Think Tank XVI Certification for Sustainable Tourism in Germany – Ove... file 196 Jul 02, 2016

Certification schemes for sustainable tourism can be seen as a key voluntary instrument to measure, verify and communicate the CSR management and performance of tourism businesses. Today a large number of such schemes can be found around th...

Author: Wolfgang Strasdas 

Year: 2016 

325 Think Tank XVI A study of innovation in the making CARMACAL and the D... file 400 Jul 02, 2016

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Author: Harald Buijtendijk, Jorine Vermeer & Juultje Blom 

Year: 2016 

324 Think Tank XVI Reaching the hard to reach: CSR and employee engagemen... file 273 Jul 02, 2016

As the duties and behaviour of organizations within the tourism industry evolve to accommodate expectations of pro-sustainable business change, so too does the role and responsibility of employees within these organisations. As key actors i...

Author: Kelsy Hejjas, Caroline Scarles & Graham Miller 

Year: 2016 

323 Think Tank XVI Adoption and diffusion of sustainability in tourism an... file 389 Jul 02, 2016

This study explores why family firms adopt social and ecological policies that go beyond regulations, which includes hard (e.g., law; Berrone et al., 2010) or soft (e.g., certificates; Rivera, 2002) regulations. To accomplish this, the stud...

Author: Johanna Zanon, Andreas Kallmuenzer, William Nikolakis & Mike Peters 

Year: 2016 

322 Think Tank XVI Can Tourism Businesses Foster Better Inclusion for Peo... file 185 Jul 02, 2016

It is difficult to deny that despite its increased popularity, the concept of social entrepreneurship has not received a clearer understanding in a theoretical context. Zahra, Gedajlovic, Neubaum, and Shulman (2009) list 20 definitions of s...

Author: Kristof Tomej 

Year: 2016 

321 Think Tank XVI The moderating role of values in planned behaviour: th... file 187 Jul 02, 2016

In the past five years, we (a group of researchers from the Leeds Becket University and the Open University of Catalonia) have been working on different studies about the CSR motivations, barriers and practices in tourism small and medium e...

Author: Lluís Garay, Xavier Font & August Francesc Corrons 

Year: 2016 

320 Think Tank XVI CSR in Medical Toursim – new markets, new responsibili... file 695 Jul 02, 2016

Governments, hospitals, clinics and facilitators go about their business of marketing health tourism to international patients and their relatives. While they focus on making money researchers should ask questions about changes raised by th...

Author: Kerstin Heuwinkel 

Year: 2016 

319 Think Tank XVI SWOT Analysis of Social Entrepreneurship in Enterprises file 709 Jul 02, 2016

Social Enterprise is known as a non-profit action aiming social benefits. Social entrepreneurship, on the other hand, is social actions which create permanent and sustainable values by offering innovative perspectives to find solutions fors...

Author: Sema Alimoğlu Özkan & Ali Şükrü Çetinkaya 

Year: 2016 

318 Think Tank XVI Assessing the sustainability reporting of a JSE compan... file 353 Jul 02, 2016

The world is changing into a place where broader spectra of responsibilities are now being embraced. A significant realisation has grown throughout the world that the Earth’s natural resources are scarce. Industrialisation and economic grow...

Author: Candice Hunter & Kevin Mearns 

Year: 2016 

317 Think Tank XVI eTraining for Sustainable Tourism: Investing in Skills... file 217 Jul 02, 2016

This proposed presentation examines the current state of “eTraining” opportunities (e.g. distance learning programs, online courses, live seminars) supporting professional skills development for tourism professionals, with a particular focu...

Author: Ayako Ezaki 

Year: 2016 

316 Think Tank XVI Spirituality and corporate social responsibility in to... file 294 Jul 01, 2016

This ongoing study investigates the role of spirituality for corporate social responsibility (CSR) by tourism businesses in lesser developed countries and the implications this has at the destination level. While much of the world’s tourism...

Author: Alexandra Law, Putu Indah Rahmawati & Terry De Lacy 

Year: 2016 

315 Think Tank XVI Analysing CSR Practices in Food Operations: A case stu... file 203 Jul 01, 2016

Food consumption is seen by most tourists as an important part of their holiday and tourism often takes place in ecologically, socially and culturally sensitive destinations. Through food consumption, it is not only possible to support heal...

Author: Dagmar Lund-Durlacher, Hannes Antonschmidt & Klaus-Peter Fritz 

Year: 2016