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RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Jack Carlsen, Janne J. Liburd & Deborah Edwards
School/Work Place : Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Australia (Jack Carlsen), University of Southern Denmark, Denmark (Janne Liburd), University of Technology Sydney, Australia (Deborah Edwards)
Contact : j.carlsen@curtin.edu.au
Year : 2010

This paper highlights the importance of new and established networks that underpin the innovation processes in sustainable tourism. It will draw on published literature as well as case studies to describe the various types of networks that have developed as an integral part of the innovation process (Carlsen et al, 2008). Innovation rarely occurs in isolation. Invariably, collaboration between like-minded individuals or agencies is essential in order to transform an idea or opportunity into a reality. In some cases, the links are not always intuitive or apparent and may come about through serendipity rather than strategy. In other cases, the formation of new networks gives rise to further innovation, creating a virtuous circle of process, product or service innovation. Established networks, such as those developed between government, industry and universities, are also a substantial source of innovation through research, knowledge development and dissemination.

True innovation in tourism businesses is nebulous and often driven by external forces such as changing customer needs, demographics, technology, government policy, environmental conditions, social imperatives or the supplier chain. Innovation in tourism can occur at different operational and sectoral levels and apply in a range of geographic locations. It can take the form of product, process, management or institutional innovations (Hjalager, 1996) and may be a disruptive or an incremental process (Schaper and Volery, 2007).

Innovation “remains fundamentally an application of knowledge” (Schaper and Volery 2007:64), which is best achieved through networks that serve as both repositories and generators of innovative ideas and information. There has since been a proliferation of product, process, managerial and institutional innovations that have embraced sustainability and this paper describes and analyses just a few examples of these. Hjalager (1996) indicates that networks are an integral part of the process of innovation, which often involves ‘redefinitions of interrelationships between actors’ (Hjalager, 1996, p. 202), although these relationships may be cooperative or confrontational, both still stimulate innovation (Tremblay, 2002). Hausman (2005) also finds that ‘ideological innovations, such as new management practices’ involve new partnerships as well as new ideas. Laing et al suggest that partnerships provide a means for the diffusion of innovations (Laing et al, forthcoming). Liburd and Hergesell (2007) recognise the importance of training, education and employee retention and succession to improve learning and innovation for sustainable tourism in the European North Sea Region.

People, as customers or operators, are at the core of innovation in tourism. Hence networks are critical and the social and cultural environment has to be supportive of innovative ideas and opportunities if they are to be realized. To shed light on this conversation cross-case analysis (Patton 1990) was applied to eight case studies to compare and contrast the different types and contexts of innovation and for an integrated overview of the network drivers, processes and barriers for innovation.


List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
134 Think Tank XIV Welcoming Chinese Visitors and the Easternization of t... file 2057 Jun 26, 2014

Tourism academics, practitioners, governments and agencies around the world are in general agreement about the future of tourism in what commentators have tagged The Asian Century. Assuming demographic and economic conditions persist, the in...

Author: Patricia C. Johnson 

Year: 2014 

133 Think Tank VI How Sophisticated is the level of E-Commerce Adoption ... file 2050 Oct 13, 2013

The research aims to develop a conceptual model of e-commerce adoption in tourism enterprises. The paper begins with a literature review identifying the opportunities and competitive advantage for tourism enterprises associated with E-commer...

Author: Nina Mistilis & John D’Ambra 

Year: 2006 

132 Think Tank XVI Tourists vs Tour operators Preferences for CSR Policie... file 2040 Jul 02, 2016

There is an increasing concern for environmental and social issues among international travelers. As a consequence, many tourist corporations have been exploring the implementation of Social Responsibility (SR) policies as a tool to gain co...

Author: Jorge E. Araña, Gianluca Goffi & Carmelo J. León 

Year: 2016 

131 Think Tank XV Social Representations of Tourist Selfies: New Challen... file 2005 Jul 27, 2015

A number of recent incidents have focussed media attention on the phenomenon of tourist selfies, described their negative consequences for tourist destinations and identified a number of challenges for tourist site managers. This paper repor...

Author: John Pearce & Gianna Moscardo 

Year: 2015 

130 Think Tank VII Social Responsibility and Innovation on Trafficking an... file 1984 Oct 13, 2013

Ethical questions related to globalization, human rights, unfair labor practices and trans-boundary exchanges of capital and work force create ever more complex challenges for the tourism sustainability agenda. In recent years, the tourism i...

Author: Camelia Tepelus 

Year: 2007 

129 Think Tank XII Evaluation of the accessibility of Monterrey's Tourism... file 1956 Nov 06, 2013

Despite several declarations, policies and regulations that seek to protect their rights, people with disabilities still encounter several constrains that impede their full participation in society, and, in particular, their access to and en...

Author: Blanca A. Camargo, Isabel Sánchez, Fátima Guajardo & Alejandro García 

Year: 2012 

128 Think Tank VIII Managing Work/Life Balance Issues: An Examination of H... file 1950 Oct 13, 2013

The purpose of this study was to identify international human resource management best practice with regard to work/life balance policies and practices within an international hotel in Auckland, New Zealand. The methodology included an anal...

Author: Elizabeth Roberts, David Williamson & Carmen Cox 

Year: 2008 

127 Think Tank IX Recreation Specialisation and Destination Image: A cas... file 1948 Oct 13, 2013

Papua New Guinea (PNG) should be to Australia what Costa Rica and Belize are to the USA – a proximate and successful tourist destination that attracts sustainable numbers of tourists drawn to the extraordinary diversity of endemic wildlife,...

Author: Kevin Lyons, Kevin Markwell & Patricia Johnson 

Year: 2009 

126 Think Tank XVII Product innovation in route-based tourism: Interactive... file 1940 Aug 17, 2017

Route-based tourism on walking, hiking and cycling routes is experiencing resurgence throughout the world (Collins-Kreiner, 2010) and can be a driver of sustainable development, particularly for remote areas (Briedenhann & Wickens, 2004;...

Author: Anna Scuttari & Isidoro De Bortoli & Harald Pechlaner & Hannes Riegler 

Year: 2017 

125 Think Tank XV The role of souvenir vendors in the cultural sustainab... file 1938 Jul 27, 2015

The research investigated the role of souvenir vendors in sustaining the social-cultural authenticity of Chichen Itza’s host community, a Mexican UNESCO World Heritage Site (WHS) (UNESCO, 2015a). The case study evaluated the Maya-descent ven...

Author: Ady Milman 

Year: 2015 

124 Think Tank IX Values: Dollars, trees or feelings? file 1927 Oct 13, 2013

The importance of values to tourism is but one aspect of the importance of values in human interactions with the natural environment and even more broadly to the human condition. However, attempts to understand the impact of values on behav...

Author: Denise Dillon 

Year: 2009 

123 Think Tank IX Ethical Confusion and Confusion of Ethics: Unpacking t... file 1909 Oct 13, 2013

For many decades authors (see Sontag, 1976, Baederholt, 2006, Chalfern, 1979, Crang, 1997) have recognised the fundamental role of photography within tourism. Many such as Urry (1999, 2002), Crouch (2000, 2002) and Crouch & Lubbren (200...

Author: Caroline Scarles 

Year: 2009 

122 Think Tank XVII The Role of Tour guide for Sustainable Tourism with th... file 1893 Aug 17, 2017

The emergence of information technology has a profound impact on tourism industry. Today, visitors are more inclined to have searched the Internet to gain more pre-tour knowledge for the destinations than before. The advances of the various ...

Author: Daisy Suk-fong FUNG 

Year: 2017 

121 Think Tank VIII Tourism for Marginal Groups: Tourism as a Livelihood S... file 1892 Oct 13, 2013

Since the report of the Brundtland Commission was published 1987 (WCED 1987), sustainable development has been incorporated into the policies of many international organizations and the legislation of jurisdictions throughout the world. Nev...

Author: Teresa C.H. Tao & Geoffrey Wall 

Year: 2008 

120 Think Tank XIX Designing sustainable tourist experiences – (how) does... file 1852 Oct 23, 2019

Key words: Nature Parks, sustainable tourism, customer journey, sustainable development, behaviour change Page: 188-193 Designing sustainable tourist experiences.pdf Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ tabl...

Author: Birgit Reutz 

Year: 2019 

119 Think Tank XV Can we eat it? Exploring the cultural challenges in ma... file 1848 Jul 27, 2015

Can we eat it? How did you stop the waves? Is there water in there? Where is the switch to turn it off? Will it eat me? These are just some of the many questions asked by visitors to uShaka Sea World in Durban, South Africa. While South Afri...

Author: Judy Mann & Roy Ballantyne & Jan Packer 

Year: 2015 

118 Think Tank IX Developing a knowledge platform on value of parks for ... file 1839 Oct 13, 2013

National Parks and other protected natural areas are a significant point of focus for tourism activity globally. Consequently it is important to understand the values of parks for tourism to assist with effective policy, planning and manage...

Author: Michael Hughes & Jack Carlsen 

Year: 2009 

117 Think Tank XII Sustainability and policy mobility in resort destinations file 1798 Nov 06, 2013

In the arena of resort development, there is a long history of destinations emulating (and seeking to surpass) one another in efforts to maintain competitiveness. In recent years, the use of “best case” examples are common tools employed to ...

Author: Alison M. Gill & Peter W. Williams 

Year: 2012 

116 Think Tank IX Do Chinese tourists find their in-group members more t... file 1795 Oct 13, 2013

Furthermore, social identity theory suggests that people are attracted to others who are familiar to themselves because their similarity reinforces their self-image (Tajfel, 1982), and that people from collectivist culture tend to favour in-...

Author: Rui Jin Hoare, Ken Butcher & Danny O'Brien 

Year: 2009 

115 Think Tank VII Innovation in Tourism Education: Building the Capacity... file 1748 Oct 13, 2013

This paper will present the findings of a recent Summit on the Future of Tourism Education held in April 2007 in Austria. The summit's goal is to identify future societal, economic, environmental, political and technological trends from 201...

Author: Pauline Sheldon 

Year: 2007 

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