Resources

RESOURCES


RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Timothy Tyrrell & Robert Johnston
School/Work Place : Arizona State University, USA (Timothy Tyrrell), University of Connecticut, USA (Robert Johnston)
Contact : timt@asu.edu
Year : 2007

"Operational definitions of tourism sustainability require details regarding what is to be sustained, for whom it is to be sustained, and the level at which it is to be sustained." This is the introductory sentence to "A Dynamic Model of Sustainable Tourism" (Tyrrell and Johnston, 2005). In it we develop a dynamic model illustrating the interrelated behavior of tourism-related economic and environmental conditions over time. We are proud that this work was awarded the Charles Goeldner, Outstanding Journal Article of 2005 by the Travel and Tourism Research Association. Subsequent writings have suggested practical situations and observable phenomena that validate the model (Johnston and Tyrrell, 2007). However, to date, we have never presented the model at a professional meeting, nor presented simplified implications of the model for tourism tradeoffs and management.

In its published form, the model is mathematically formal and somewhat complex. However, the fundamental implications of the model are straightforward, with intuitive implications for tourism management. We propose to present the model in a  “math-lite,” user-friendly version, and describe findings derived by integral calculus using common language. That is, we will present the formal aspects of the model in a simple, user-friendly form useful for those less familiar with complex mathematical models. We do this with no disrespect to the professional expertise of the audience. Rather, the goal is to expose the model and ourselves to new realms of professional conversation, engaging in dialog regarding practical implications for tourism.

The underlying optimization model is designed to assist tourism planners in conceptualizing choices and tradeoffs implicit in various options for environmentally sustainable tourism, at a general level. For simplicity, we will focus the presentation on two stylized groups—industry and residents—although the presented models may be easily adapted to accommodate greater numbers of stakeholder groups. The formal mathematical structure of the proposed model is analogous to that used in certain applications of optimal control theory to biological resources. However, as noted above we will eschew complex mathematical presentations in favor of a more widely-accessible format.

The model is presented as a template—an alternative mechanism that may be added to the toolbox available to those assessing tradeoffs in sustainable tourism. It formally conceptualizes tradeoffs implicit in the search for sustainable tourism outcomes provides greater clarity to that which is necessarily implied—and not implied—by environmentally sustainable tourism. As such, the model is meant to provide a preliminary step towards greater structure and precision in the discussion of tourism sustainability—a concept that has been subject to considerable ambiguity in prior writings and discourse.

The presentation, based on the underlying dynamic model, will characterize fundamental notions of sustainable tourism. We will present key model findings relevant to the search for sustainable outcomes, and characterize the potential conflicts, hazards, and tradeoffs implicit in the choice among different sustainable futures. Implications of the model will be discussed with regard to a patterns of tourism found in a specific destination—the Okavango Delta of northwestern Botswana. Evidence from this high-value tourist destination illustrates the major findings of the theoretical model as well as divergences between visions of sustainable tourism among different stakeholder groups.


List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
12 Think Tank XVIII Indigenous destination development: Nudging key player... file 1412 Jan 07, 2019

Key words: Key players, sustainable tourism impact, tourism planning

Author: Astrid Frischknecht, Celiane Camargo-Borges & Celeste Wilderom 

Year: 2018 

11 Think Tank XVIII Visitor management in protected areas file 2946 Jan 07, 2019

Key words: tourism management, tourism planning, visitor management, protected areas, New Zealand

Author: Julia Nina Albrecht 

Year: 2018 

» Think Tank VII Practical Interpretations of a Dynamic Model of Sustai... file 4912 Oct 13, 2013

"Operational definitions of tourism sustainability require details regarding what is to be sustained, for whom it is to be sustained, and the level at which it is to be sustained." This is the introductory sentence to "A Dynamic Model of Sus...

Author: Timothy Tyrrell & Robert Johnston 

Year: 2007 

9 Think Tank XII Micro-Mobility Patterns and Service Blueprints as Foun... file 5579 Nov 06, 2013

This paper proposes the use of micro-mobility patterns and service blueprints in visitor management planning. Using a nature-based conservation area and visitor attraction in Wellington, New Zealand, as a case study, micro-mobility patterns ...

Author: Julia Albrecht 

Year: 2012 

8 Think Tank V Ideas for A(u)ction: Tourism Risk Management file 7036 Dec 14, 2013

As a contribution to BEST Education Network ThinkTank V, Managing Riskand Crisis for Sustainable Tourism, the following paper has been prepared in two parts. The first part of the paper focuses on the idea that an appropriate model can be de...

Author: Scott K. Cunliffe 

Year: 2005 

OPA: Keynote Speech 

7 Think Tank VIII Community Actions to Engage Local Residents in Tourism... file 7398 Dec 19, 2013

This paper explores the residents’ knowledge of community actions to engage local members in tourism planning and development in the King Cobra Village of Thailand. The degree of participatory ability which is associated with the public atti...

Author: Kitsada Tungchawal 

Year: 2008 

6 Think Tank IX Revitalizing Community Values through Railway Regenera... file 7699 Oct 13, 2013

This paper presents a tourism research and education approach for the optimization of social capital invested in community action in support of railway tourism in the Asia Pacific region. The main hypothesis of the research is that railway r...

Author: Ian Chaplin 

Year: 2009 

5 OPA award Using Tourism to Build Social Capital in Communities: ... file 7835 Nov 06, 2013

Despite considerable discussion about how tourism could or should contribute to sustainable destination development, there is little evidence that the practice of tourism planning or development has altered in any significant way in the last...

Author: Gianna Moscardo, Andrea Schurmann, Elena Konovalov & Nancy G. McGehee 

Year: 2013 

4 Think Tank XII Blurred Boundaries: The Implications of New Tourism Mo... file 8023 Nov 06, 2013

Tourism is traditionally treated as an escape from everyday life and tourism theory is concerned with extraordinary places. Tourism and everyday life are conceptualized as belonging to different ontological worlds.” (Larsen, 2008, p. 27). A...

Author: Laurie Murphy, Gianna Moscardo, Nancy McGehee & Elena Konovalov 

Year: 2012 

3 Think Tank X Is Ecotourism a Strategy for Regional Economic Develop... file 9100 Oct 13, 2013

The state of Uttarakhand (in the Himalayas) in which the two case studies were conducted is trying to expand its already existing strength in the tourism sector as well. Tourism is estimated to make up for about 20% of GDP in Uttarakhand in...

Author: Harald Pechlaner & Christopher Reuter 

Year: 2010 

2 Think Tank XIII Using Tourism to Build Social Capital in Communities: ... file 12953 Nov 06, 2013

Despite considerable discussion about how tourism could or should contribute to sustainable destination development, there is little evidence that the practice of tourism planning or development has altered in any significant way in the last...

Author: Gianna Moscardo, Andrea Schurmann, Elena Konovalov & Nancy G. McGehee 

Year: 2013 

1 Think Tank XII Enhancing Stakeholders' Participation in Community-Bas... file 15796 Nov 06, 2013

Although the iconic floating markets in Thailand have been promoted both domestically and internationally, without a well-planned tourism initiative, virtually all of them have lost their authenticity. To preserve the culture of the Don-Mano...

Author: Nopparat Suthitakon, Sombat Karnjanakit & Suchart Taweepornpathomgul 

Year: 2012 

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