Resources

RESOURCES


RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Timothy Tyrrell & Robert Johnston
School/Work Place : Arizona State University, USA (Timothy Tyrrell), University of Connecticut, USA (Robert Johnston)
Contact : timt@asu.edu
Year : 2007

"Operational definitions of tourism sustainability require details regarding what is to be sustained, for whom it is to be sustained, and the level at which it is to be sustained." This is the introductory sentence to "A Dynamic Model of Sustainable Tourism" (Tyrrell and Johnston, 2005). In it we develop a dynamic model illustrating the interrelated behavior of tourism-related economic and environmental conditions over time. We are proud that this work was awarded the Charles Goeldner, Outstanding Journal Article of 2005 by the Travel and Tourism Research Association. Subsequent writings have suggested practical situations and observable phenomena that validate the model (Johnston and Tyrrell, 2007). However, to date, we have never presented the model at a professional meeting, nor presented simplified implications of the model for tourism tradeoffs and management.

In its published form, the model is mathematically formal and somewhat complex. However, the fundamental implications of the model are straightforward, with intuitive implications for tourism management. We propose to present the model in a  “math-lite,” user-friendly version, and describe findings derived by integral calculus using common language. That is, we will present the formal aspects of the model in a simple, user-friendly form useful for those less familiar with complex mathematical models. We do this with no disrespect to the professional expertise of the audience. Rather, the goal is to expose the model and ourselves to new realms of professional conversation, engaging in dialog regarding practical implications for tourism.

The underlying optimization model is designed to assist tourism planners in conceptualizing choices and tradeoffs implicit in various options for environmentally sustainable tourism, at a general level. For simplicity, we will focus the presentation on two stylized groups—industry and residents—although the presented models may be easily adapted to accommodate greater numbers of stakeholder groups. The formal mathematical structure of the proposed model is analogous to that used in certain applications of optimal control theory to biological resources. However, as noted above we will eschew complex mathematical presentations in favor of a more widely-accessible format.

The model is presented as a template—an alternative mechanism that may be added to the toolbox available to those assessing tradeoffs in sustainable tourism. It formally conceptualizes tradeoffs implicit in the search for sustainable tourism outcomes provides greater clarity to that which is necessarily implied—and not implied—by environmentally sustainable tourism. As such, the model is meant to provide a preliminary step towards greater structure and precision in the discussion of tourism sustainability—a concept that has been subject to considerable ambiguity in prior writings and discourse.

The presentation, based on the underlying dynamic model, will characterize fundamental notions of sustainable tourism. We will present key model findings relevant to the search for sustainable outcomes, and characterize the potential conflicts, hazards, and tradeoffs implicit in the choice among different sustainable futures. Implications of the model will be discussed with regard to a patterns of tourism found in a specific destination—the Okavango Delta of northwestern Botswana. Evidence from this high-value tourist destination illustrates the major findings of the theoretical model as well as divergences between visions of sustainable tourism among different stakeholder groups.


List of Articles
No. Subject Views Date
42 OPA award Envisioning Sustainable Tourism Futures: An Evaluation... file 8100 Oct 13, 2013

Methods for researching the future have grown both in variety and rigour, offering new opportunities for understanding sustainable tourism. This paper discusses the value of futures research as a tool for envisioning and planning sustainable...

Author: Pierre Benckendorff 

Year: 2007 

OPA: 2007 Outstanding Paper Award Winner 

41 Think Tank VII The Practical Application of Sustainable Tourism Devel... file 4862 Oct 13, 2013

The internationally acclaimed Blackstone Valley Tourism Council continues to create a sustainable visitor destination using whole place-making techniques. Under its auspices, the Sustainable Tourism Planning and Development Laboratory share...

Author: Robert Billington, Natalie Carter & Lilly Kayamba 

Year: 2007 

40 Think Tank VII Destination and Enterprise Management for a Tourism Fu... file 6107 Oct 13, 2013

A key element of a successful tourism industry is the ability to recognize and deal with change across a wide range of key factors and the way they interact. Key drivers of global change can be classified as Economic, Social, Political, Tec...

Author: Larry Dwyer, Deborah Edwards, Nina Mistilis, & Carolina Roman 

Year: 2007 

39 Think Tank VII Rural Adventure Tourism and Social Entrepreneurship file 3809 Oct 13, 2013

The intent of this research is to provide a comparative analysis of several innovative social entrepreneurial businesses operating within the realm of rural adventure tourism. This qualitative, case-based research explores six companies, wh...

Author: Christina Heyniger & Kristin Lamoureaux 

Year: 2007 

38 Think Tank VII Thematic Analysis of Sustainable Tourism and the Tripl... file 2756 Oct 13, 2013

The relationship between the themes in sustainable tourism publications and the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) was explored in this article. A categorised list of 3719 sustainable tourism articles was thematically analysed to determine the conten...

Author: Michael Hughes & Jack Carlsen 

Year: 2007 

37 Think Tank VII Learning as Prerequisite for Innovations in Tourism - ... file 8493 Oct 13, 2013

This article reports on an ongoing project that focuses on learning and innovation as prerequisites for sustainable tourism in a transnational environment defined by the European North Sea Region. According to Buhalis (2000: 113) providing i...

Author: Janne Liburd & Anja Hergesell 

Year: 2007 

36 Think Tank VII Innovations in Volunteer Tourism: A Case Study of Fund... file 4296 Oct 13, 2013

The popularity of volunteer tourism as a form of alternative tourism has grown significantly over the past decade (McGehee, and Norman, 2002). Volunteer tourists can now be found throughout the world participating in a wide array of social, ...

Author: Kevin Lyons 

Year: 2007 

35 Think Tank VII Volunteer Tourism: Sustainable Innovation in Tourism, ... file 5376 Oct 13, 2013

This is a study of the relationships between two volunteer tourism host communities and the volunteer tourists who visit them. One is a declining rural community located in the Appalachian mountains of the United States. The other is in a ra...

Author: Nancy McGehee 

Year: 2007 

34 Think Tank VII Tourism Resource Teams: Innovation with and for touris... file 11631 Oct 13, 2013

Communities have a variety of interest levels in tourism overall, including sustainable tourism (WTO, 2002). While we have witnessed increased awareness and discussions about sustainability and sustainable tourism, there is often a lack of s...

Author: Cynthia Messer, Ingrid Schneider & Okechukwu Ukaga 

Year: 2007 

33 Think Tank VII Getting Fit to Innovate: TUI's InnOlympics file 3636 Oct 13, 2013

Tether (2003) describes innovation within service industries as having a Cinderella status - marginal and neglected. The traditional approach to thinking about innovation has been to concentrate on manufacturing and within that, the role of...

Author: Graham Miller & Caroline Scarles 

Year: 2007 

32 Think Tank VII There's No Such Thing as Sustainable Tourism: Innovati... file 10780 Oct 13, 2013

Innovation can come in many forms but all of these share three common elements - creativity, a problem solving approach and a new way of thinking. This paper proposes that current approaches to tourism and sustainable regional development h...

Author: Gianna Moscardo 

Year: 2007 

31 Think Tank VII Innovation in Tourism Education: Building the Capacity... file 1778 Oct 13, 2013

This paper will present the findings of a recent Summit on the Future of Tourism Education held in April 2007 in Austria. The summit's goal is to identify future societal, economic, environmental, political and technological trends from 201...

Author: Pauline Sheldon 

Year: 2007 

30 Think Tank VII Social Responsibility and Innovation on Trafficking an... file 2037 Oct 13, 2013

Ethical questions related to globalization, human rights, unfair labor practices and trans-boundary exchanges of capital and work force create ever more complex challenges for the tourism sustainability agenda. In recent years, the tourism i...

Author: Camelia Tepelus 

Year: 2007 

» Think Tank VII Practical Interpretations of a Dynamic Model of Sustai... file 4821 Oct 13, 2013

"Operational definitions of tourism sustainability require details regarding what is to be sustained, for whom it is to be sustained, and the level at which it is to be sustained." This is the introductory sentence to "A Dynamic Model of Sus...

Author: Timothy Tyrrell & Robert Johnston 

Year: 2007 

28 Think Tank VI The Good, the Bad and the Ugly: CSR, Film and Tourism.... file 7046 Oct 13, 2013

This paper reports on an element of an ongoing research project undertaken since 1999 in relation to the effects of film-induced tourism on a small community based in North Yorkshire, England, namely Goathland.  Goathland is better known to ...

Author: Sue Beeton 

Year: 2006 

OPA: 2006 Runner Up 

27 OPA award Stakeholder involvement, culture and accountability in... file 6522 Oct 13, 2013

Following its historical rise and fall, America’s first industrialized polluted landscape garnered federal and local support to remedy its near destruction. Today, the Blackstone Valley is a pragmatic example of translating theory into pract...

Author: Robert Billington, Veronica Cadoppi & Natalie Carter 

Year: 2006 

OPA: 2006 Outstanding Paper Award Winner 

26 Think Tank VI Service Learning in Tourism Educational Programs – A S... file 3267 Oct 13, 2013

A problem in developing new tourism markets remains how to resource them from an existing employment base. Key questions arising are: Do current tourism enterprises have the existing skills to move into these new markets for sustainable tour...

Author: Susan Anita Briggs 

Year: 2006 

25 Think Tank VI Sustainable tourist accommodation management: The role... file 5167 Oct 13, 2013

The integration of sustainability within the domain of tourism has recently made considerable progress. For instance, in the UK and the Netherlands, the most important federations of tour operators, the FTO and the ANVR, have introduced obli...

Author: Menno Houtstra 

Year: 2006 

24 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility and Marine Tourism Org... file 4864 Oct 13, 2013

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become an important issue for some governments but the tourism industry appears to be slow in adopting CSR strategies. By focusing on CSR, we argue that the implementation of CSR audits could help t...

Author: Ya-Ting Huang, David Botterill & Eleri Jones 

Year: 2006 

23 Think Tank VI How Sophisticated is the level of E-Commerce Adoption ... file 2082 Oct 13, 2013

The research aims to develop a conceptual model of e-commerce adoption in tourism enterprises. The paper begins with a literature review identifying the opportunities and competitive advantage for tourism enterprises associated with E-commer...

Author: Nina Mistilis & John D’Ambra 

Year: 2006 

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