Author : Gayle Jennings
School/Work Place : Griffith University, Australia
Contact :
Year : 2012

Bali has long been a tourist destination for Australian tourists and the Australian tourist market is an important one for Bali tourism. In the last two decades, increasingly Australian tourists have and are shifting their mobility practices from touristic practices to expatriate practices. In using the term, touristic, I am referring to short-term visitation to Bali as a traveler. The term, expatriate, on the other hand, is used to refer to a person who is provisionally or permanently living in Bali and is not of Balinese-Indonesian cultural background or socialised in Balinese-Indonesian culture. While these two definitions partially contradict the World Travel and Tourism Council’s (2012) definition, of “travellers on trips outside their usual environment with a duration of less than one year”, the two definitions, used in this paper, reflect similar perspectives to new mobilities paradigms (Sheeler and Urry, 2006) regarding fluidity in describing movement and purposes of people across time, place, and space.

Essentially, the paper is a paper about ‘others’ and ‘othering’ (Harding, 1991). In the first instance, the Australian expatriates as ‘others’ experience multiple layers of ‘othering’ by local residents, due to, for example, gender, age, socio-cultural background, behaviours and attitudes. In using the plural term ‘others’, I am embracing Irigaray’s (1985) postmodern perspective of multiplicity rather than only one type of universal ‘other’. The expatriates, in turn, engage in ‘othering’ Balinese and Indonesian residents. They do this because of their social and economic practices and concurrent perspectives of ‘self” as ‘subject’ despite being “others” in the host country. The paper narrates that in engaging in such practices, Australian expatriates demonstrate micro-scale neocolonial (Nkrumah, 1965) and nomadic capitalist tendencies (Williams, 1985), which have flow-on socio-economic, cultural and political consequences for expatriates and residents.

List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
82 Think Tank IV Sustainability and Mass Destinations: Challenges and P... file 4035 Oct 13, 2013

In year 2001, the Government of the Balearic Islands decided to establish a tourism tax, named "ecotax", as an important measure to achieve a more sustainable tourism model for the islands. This paper analyses the background of the ecotax, t...

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81 Think Tank X The Role of Knowledge-based Networks in Sustainable To... file 3937 Oct 13, 2013

In practice, tourism organisations tend to be more serious towards their financial viability and therefore undermine long-term socio-cultural and environmental consequences. In so doing they impede their own ability and that of the destinat...

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80 Think Tank VII Getting Fit to Innovate: TUI's InnOlympics file 3897 Oct 13, 2013

Tether (2003) describes innovation within service industries as having a Cinderella status - marginal and neglected. The traditional approach to thinking about innovation has been to concentrate on manufacturing and within that, the role of...

Author: Graham Miller & Caroline Scarles 

Year: 2007 

79 Think Tank XIV Local Networks as Sustainable Policy Instruments: A Ca... file 3895 Jun 27, 2014

In this case study, a communication network among local hotel managers was examined, first to assess the extent of communication among hotel managers, and second to identify influential members within the network. Communication with respect ...

Author: Karen Irene Thal & Tracy Burkett 

Year: 2014 

78 Think Tank XIII Tourism development led by the Third Sector - Impacts ... file 3869 Nov 06, 2013

Most tourism development is initiated and led by either the private or the public sector. These projects’ potential impacts on host communities have been explored since the 1980s, and they are now relatively well known. This is not the case ...

Author: Julia N. Albrecht & My N. D. Tran 

Year: 2013 

77 Think Tank IV Cultural Tourism as a Means for Sustainability in a Ma... file 3848 Oct 13, 2013

Tourism has become for many islands a means of social, economic and cultural development through the creation of jobs, raising standards of living and through the development of local resources for culture and heritage. Thus, many of these d...

Author: Chryso Panayidou 

Year: 2004 

76 Think Tank IX The Role of Values in Sustainable Tourism Education file 3825 Oct 13, 2013

This presentation discusses the role of values in the context of sustainable tourism education. However, it does not seek to engage in the debate about the definition of Sustainable Tourism nor the differences between this concept and Sustai...

Author: Christian Schott 

Year: 2009 

75 Think Tank XIV Leadership at the Nexus: Exploring the Connection betw... file 3816 Jun 26, 2014

The development of sustainable and competitive tourism destinations is contingent upon many factors including the creation of inclusive policy (Pforr, 2006), the development and implementation of strategic plans (Jordan, Vogt, Kruger, and Gr...

Author: Whitney Knollenberg & Nancy Gard McGehee 

Year: 2014 

74 Think Tank XII Causality Between Inbound Tourism and Economic Growth:... file 3812 Nov 06, 2013

This paper examines the existing studies of the relationship between inbound tourism and economic growth. After a brief discussion of general economic growth theory and the reasons why a positive causal relationship may exist between export ...

Author: Mondher Sahli & Simon Carey 

Year: 2012 

73 Think Tank XIII Building community capacity by developing regional bus... file 3790 Nov 06, 2013

Tourism is often proposed as a strategy for community development, especially in rural or remote regions where traditional industries, such as agriculture, are experiencing an economic downturn and there are limited alternative opportunities...

Author: Anna Blackman 

Year: 2013 

72 Think Tank XIV Tourism Concessions in National Parks: Neo-liberal Too... file 3789 Jun 26, 2014

For the tourism sector the government aims to “Grow the number of new business opportunities on public conservation land in order to deliver increased economic prosperity and conservation gain” (New Zealand Government, 2012: 23). In relation...

Author: Valentina Dinica 

Year: 2014 

71 Think Tank IV Sustainability in a Mature Mass-Tourism Destination: T... file 3787 Oct 13, 2013

Most destinations are struggling to achieve sustainability for their economies, their environments, their cultures and their tourism industries. This laudatory, idealistic and complex process involves many sectors of the industry, the commun...

Author: Pauline Sheldon, John Knox & Kem Lowry 

Year: 2004 

70 Think Tank XIV Sustainable Tourism Mobility: Recommended Strategies f... file 3753 Jun 26, 2014

Transport is a vital and integral component of the tourism system yet it contributes the most emissions in tourism (Dubois, Peeters, Ceron, & Gössling, 2011; Peeters & Dubois, 2010). In line with the global concerns for sustainabilit...

Author: Diem-Trinh Le-Klähn 

Year: 2014 

69 Think Tank VI Service Learning in Tourism Educational Programs – A S... file 3703 Oct 13, 2013

A problem in developing new tourism markets remains how to resource them from an existing employment base. Key questions arising are: Do current tourism enterprises have the existing skills to move into these new markets for sustainable tour...

Author: Susan Anita Briggs 

Year: 2006 

68 Think Tank XIII City Slicker to Roo Carer: The Journey of a Wildlife V... file 3695 Nov 06, 2013

The level of interest and participation in voluntourism has progressively become a major sector in contemporary tourism. The notion of combining a novel and pleasurable tourism experience with the fulfillment of contributing a worthwhile cau...

Author: Eunice Tan 

Year: 2013 

67 Think Tank XII Enhancing Social Capital through Networking for Sustai... file 3686 Nov 06, 2013

Social capital has been recognised as a factor affecting sustainable development in every discipline. A network or a partnership is identified as a “structural” form of social capital and a tool to empower participants in the networks. There...

Author: Attama Nilnoppkun 

Year: 2012 

66 Think Tank VIII A Framework for Work-Life Balance Practices in the Tou... file 3668 Oct 13, 2013

This paper addresses the key issues surrounding the debate over work-life balance. It provides an overview of current thinking in the general work environment, with specific focus on the issue within the tourism industry. This paper present...

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Year: 2008 

OPA: 2008 Outstanding Paper Award Winner 

65 Think Tank IX Using Social and Political Values to Assess Host Commu... file 3625 Oct 13, 2013

Tourism, like any other endeavour, operates within the social and political domains of a community, and it is therefore likely that residents with different social and political values would hold different representations of tourism. In the ...

Author: Margaret Deery, Leo Jago & Liz Fredline 

Year: 2009 

» Think Tank XII Social and Economic Mobility: Expatriate Practises in ... file 3603 Nov 06, 2013

Bali has long been a tourist destination for Australian tourists and the Australian tourist market is an important one for Bali tourism. In the last two decades, increasingly Australian tourists have and are shifting their mobility practices...

Author: Gayle Jennings 

Year: 2012 

63 Think Tank XII Understanding Tourism Flows and Patterns: A Case Study... file 3590 Nov 06, 2013

This paper reports on the outcomes of two collaborative research projects, conducted in conjunction with destination management authorities. The projects used GPS tracking devices to find out how various kinds of visitors moved around two Au...

Author: Deborah Edwards & Tony Griffin 

Year: 2012