Resources

RESOURCES


RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Timothy Tyrrell & Robert Johnston
School/Work Place : Arizona State University, USA (Timothy Tyrrell), University of Connecticut, USA (Robert Johnston)
Contact : timt@asu.edu
Year : 2007

"Operational definitions of tourism sustainability require details regarding what is to be sustained, for whom it is to be sustained, and the level at which it is to be sustained." This is the introductory sentence to "A Dynamic Model of Sustainable Tourism" (Tyrrell and Johnston, 2005). In it we develop a dynamic model illustrating the interrelated behavior of tourism-related economic and environmental conditions over time. We are proud that this work was awarded the Charles Goeldner, Outstanding Journal Article of 2005 by the Travel and Tourism Research Association. Subsequent writings have suggested practical situations and observable phenomena that validate the model (Johnston and Tyrrell, 2007). However, to date, we have never presented the model at a professional meeting, nor presented simplified implications of the model for tourism tradeoffs and management.

In its published form, the model is mathematically formal and somewhat complex. However, the fundamental implications of the model are straightforward, with intuitive implications for tourism management. We propose to present the model in a  “math-lite,” user-friendly version, and describe findings derived by integral calculus using common language. That is, we will present the formal aspects of the model in a simple, user-friendly form useful for those less familiar with complex mathematical models. We do this with no disrespect to the professional expertise of the audience. Rather, the goal is to expose the model and ourselves to new realms of professional conversation, engaging in dialog regarding practical implications for tourism.

The underlying optimization model is designed to assist tourism planners in conceptualizing choices and tradeoffs implicit in various options for environmentally sustainable tourism, at a general level. For simplicity, we will focus the presentation on two stylized groups—industry and residents—although the presented models may be easily adapted to accommodate greater numbers of stakeholder groups. The formal mathematical structure of the proposed model is analogous to that used in certain applications of optimal control theory to biological resources. However, as noted above we will eschew complex mathematical presentations in favor of a more widely-accessible format.

The model is presented as a template—an alternative mechanism that may be added to the toolbox available to those assessing tradeoffs in sustainable tourism. It formally conceptualizes tradeoffs implicit in the search for sustainable tourism outcomes provides greater clarity to that which is necessarily implied—and not implied—by environmentally sustainable tourism. As such, the model is meant to provide a preliminary step towards greater structure and precision in the discussion of tourism sustainability—a concept that has been subject to considerable ambiguity in prior writings and discourse.

The presentation, based on the underlying dynamic model, will characterize fundamental notions of sustainable tourism. We will present key model findings relevant to the search for sustainable outcomes, and characterize the potential conflicts, hazards, and tradeoffs implicit in the choice among different sustainable futures. Implications of the model will be discussed with regard to a patterns of tourism found in a specific destination—the Okavango Delta of northwestern Botswana. Evidence from this high-value tourist destination illustrates the major findings of the theoretical model as well as divergences between visions of sustainable tourism among different stakeholder groups.


List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
122 Think Tank XI Learning Network Sustainable Tourism (LNST) for Touris... file 5030 Oct 14, 2013

Since 2002 the Flemish Tourism Board, the executive agency of the Flemish Ministry of Tourism, has implemented different actions to introduce the principles of sustainable tourism into tourism education in Flanders. The general objective is...

Author: Griet Geudens & Manuel Minne 

Year: 2011 

121 Think Tank XIV A Multi-Stakeholder Perspective on Sustainable Tourism... file 5012 Jun 26, 2014

In this study, I take up the task to work towards a theoretical and methodological framework that allows using sustainability as a threshold concept for critically evaluating the assumptions embedded in both tourism management theory and pra...

Author: José-Carlos García-Rosell 

Year: 2014 

120 Think Tank V Crisis Communications and Tourism Recovery Strategies ... file 5010 Oct 13, 2013

This paper describes the application of lessons and processes gleaned from previous crises and disasters to the tourism recovery process for the Maldives following the tsunami of December 26 th , 2004. An assessment of existing literature as...

Author: Jack Carlsen 

Year: 2005 

OPA: 2005 Outstanding Paper Award Winner 

119 Think Tank XI Environmental Attitudes of Generation Y Students: Foun... file 4982 Oct 14, 2013

Sustainability has long been a theme in the tourism research and planning literature and is a growing concern in the wider area of business and corporate management. Consequent to these trends in practice and research there has been a growt...

Author: Pierre Benckendorff, Gianna Moscardo & Laurie Murphy 

Year: 2011 

118 Think Tank XIV Development of a Certification System for Sustainable ... file 4960 Jun 27, 2014

Tourism destinations are complex entities that can be defined as geographical areas of different sizes that are being visited by tourists. Most definitions then differentiate between the perspectives of those living in and managing a destina...

Author: Wolfgang Strasdas 

Year: 2014 

» Think Tank VII Practical Interpretations of a Dynamic Model of Sustai... file 4922 Oct 13, 2013

"Operational definitions of tourism sustainability require details regarding what is to be sustained, for whom it is to be sustained, and the level at which it is to be sustained." This is the introductory sentence to "A Dynamic Model of Sus...

Author: Timothy Tyrrell & Robert Johnston 

Year: 2007 

116 Think Tank XII Creating Tourism Transport Flow Maps with GIS: A Pract... file 4896 Nov 06, 2013

This paper explores various options to visualize tourism transport flows with spatial analysis tools and show them on maps. To facilitate implementation of these options, procedures for data preparation and map creation are explained through...

Author: Martin Landré & Paul Peeters 

Year: 2012 

115 Think Tank IX Courchevel, an outstanding alpine ski resort at a turn... file 4895 Oct 13, 2013

“Courchevel is first and foremost one among the founding elements of the huge touristic complex of les Trois Vallées in France. Linked to the neighbouring Allues and Belleville valleys by a 3,000 acres network area of regularly packed and ma...

Author: Daniel Tixier 

Year: 2009 

114 Think Tank XIV Exploring Policy, Politics and Governance through Stak... file 4867 Jun 27, 2014

This paper looks at the development of an ecotrekking industry on the Kokoda Track and demonstrates how the use of participatory methods in community based tourism can align two different “regimes of truth” (that of the community and of the ...

Author: Stephen Wearing, Paul Chatterton & Amy Reggers 

Year: 2014 

113 Think Tank X Sustainability: What Matters to Students, Educators, a... file 4864 Oct 13, 2013

As climate change gains global attention from events like the summit in Copenhagen held during December of 2009, the need for sustainable tourism is more important than ever; with comprehensive education in sustainability concepts and practi...

Author: Cynthia S. Deale & Nelson Barber 

Year: 2010 

112 Think Tank VIII Lifestyle Oriented Small Tourism [LOST] Firms in the F... file 4819 Oct 13, 2013

Lifestyle has been oft cited in the literature as the main motivation for those establishing or acquiring tourism related businesses in attractive destinations. However, the term has many different dimensions and connotations, both positive...

Author: Jack Carlsen & Alison Morrison 

Year: 2008 

111 Think Tank XIV Exploring the potential of Community Based Ecotourism ... file 4801 Jun 27, 2014

Development in developing countries often results in mass land-use change and subsequent increase in greenhouse gas emission by deforestation or forest degradation. For instance, approximately a-fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions was a...

Author: Stephen Wearing, Paul Chatterton, Amy Reggers & Hanna Sakata 

Year: 2014 

110 Think Tank IV It's Mostly About Me: Reasons why Volunteers contribut... file 4777 Oct 13, 2013

This paper contributes to the debate by reporting on inital findings from a wider study of volunteers in museums and art museums that was designed to empirically explore volunteer motivation, expectations, values and commitment. The aim of t...

Author: Deborah Edwards 

Year: 2004 

109 Think Tank XII Intersecting Mobilities: Tourists with Vision Impairme... file 4752 Nov 06, 2013

While there has been a developing interest in mobilities amongst tourism scholars, the notion of immobilities has often been ignored. Yet, there are many people who do not participate in tourism or, if they do, only experience partial mobili...

Author: Jennifer Small 

Year: 2012 

108 Think Tank XII Sustainable Tourism: Is it better to travel or not to ... file 4731 Nov 06, 2013

Tourism’s growing contribution to climate change has come to the forefront of the sustainable tourism literature as evidenced by the Journal of Sustainable Tourism’s (JOST) 2010 publication of a special issue titled “Tourism: Adapting to Cli...

Author: B. Bynum Boley 

Year: 2012 

107 Think Tank XIV Psychological Empowerment as Good Policy for Governanc... file 4726 Jun 26, 2014

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential impact psychological empowerment can have on sustainable tourism policy objectives, including improving resident attitudes toward tourism, enhancing destination competitiveness, and maint...

Author: B. Bynum Boley & Nancy Gard McGehee 

Year: 2014 

106 Think Tank XIII Exploring the Relationship between Cultural Capital in... file 4717 Nov 06, 2013

There is substantial literature on the impacts of tourism on culture, both positive and negative, however, there are relatively few articles that explore the relationship between cultural capital and sustainable tourism. This paper will repo...

Author: Laurie Murphy & Andrea Schurmann 

Year: 2013 

105 Think Tank X Implementation of the DIT-ACHIEV Model for Sustainable... file 4712 Oct 13, 2013

The DIT-ACHIEV Model is a model of sustainable tourism indicators developed in a previous research project undertaken by the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology. The indicators represent six fields o...

Author: Maeve Morrissey, Kevin Griffin & Sheila Flanagan 

Year: 2010 

104 Think Tank XII Opportunities and Obstacles for Sustainable Tourism Mo... file 4707 Nov 06, 2013

Cross border destination management is characterized by some extra challenges: national, district or county interests, different administrative structures, a high impact of politics and policies, inequality of tourism infrastructures, power ...

Author: Tatjana Thimm 

Year: 2012 

103 Think Tank VIII Emerging Green Tourists: Their Behaviours and Attitudes file 4703 Oct 13, 2013

The concerns are varied and are not necessarily important to all tourists and the influence they have on sustaining the industry is unknown. For years the tourism industry has used a number of mechanisms in an attempt to green operators. The...

Author: Sue Bergin-Seers & Judith Mair 

Year: 2008 

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