Author : Caroline Scarles
School/Work Place : University of Surrey, UK
Contact :
Year : 2009

For many decades authors (see Sontag, 1976, Baederholt, 2006, Chalfern, 1979, Crang, 1997) have recognised the fundamental role of photography within tourism. Many such as Urry (1999, 2002), Crouch (2000, 2002) and Crouch & Lubbren (2003) have explored the position of the visual in the tourist experience. Others have explored the social relationships between tourists that emerge through photography (Haldrup & Larsen, 2003; Badernholt, 2006), or the practices of photographing in a particular context (see Edensor 1998, 1999, 2001). However, despite references to the photograph as a tool for consuming and constructing in the tourist experience, little attention has been afforded to the effects of such practice (see Cohen et al, 1992). This paper therefore unpacks the complexities of the seemingly fleeting relationships between tourists and host communities that emerge during photographic encounters as local residents can become photographed subjects and objects of the tourist gaze. Focusing on the emergent interactions between tourists and locals who are photographed, it explores the social and cultural values that underpin tourists’ ethical considerations of whether or not to photograph local people. In doing so, it suggests that gaps in cultural and social knowledge affect of such values on these relationships as tourist practice is driven by subjective interpretations of that which is appropriate, acceptable or responsible with regard to photographing. Thus, encounters become driven by ethical confusion and a confusion of ethics (Scarles, 2009) as photography emerges as a complex fusion of both predictable and reactionary practices that align general ethical viewpoints with unpredictable ethical response in the immediacy of the moment of photographing.

List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
114 Think Tank XVIII Sustainable Experience: Innovative sustainable communi... file 1419 Jan 07, 2019

Key words: Customer Experience, Sustainable Marketing, CSR, Communication, Hospitality Management

Author: Annkathrin Weiss & Matthias Straub 

Year: 2018 

113 Think Tank VIII Tourism Acting as a Factor of Integration: The Case of... file 1392 Oct 13, 2013

Over the past years, reports over brutal, racist attacks in the former eastern states of Germany have filled the headlines of German and international media again and again. Tourism authorities in these states have complained that these att...

Author: Dagmar Lund-Durlacher 

Year: 2008 

112 Think Tank XVII Reducing economic leakages from tourism: A value chain... file 1383 Aug 17, 2017

The research is funded by the Centre for the Development of Enterprise and with the guidance of the International Trade Centre of UNCTAD. The authors would like to thank Pablo LoMoro at the International Trade Centre for his considerable sup...

Author: Andrew Rylance & Anna Spenceley 

Year: 2017 

OPA: 2017 Outstanding Paper Award Winner 

111 Think Tank XVI Sustainable Tourism Managment on Small Island Destinat... file 1328 Jul 02, 2016

On December 11th, 2015 climate change negotiations came to a close after the COP21 – 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. Across media channels and climate protests the event was referred to as “the last chance summit”, w...

Author: Bonnie Lewtas & René Schmidpeter 

Year: 2016 

110 Think Tank X How Is Sustainability ‘Materialised’ in Tourism? Conte... file 1328 Oct 13, 2013

Meaning is one of the most elusive and ubiquitous properties of tourism spaces. This paper analyses the ambiguity of meaning in the materiality of tourism sustainability. Sustainable development and its three interrelated principles of holi...

Author: Neil M. Walsh 

Year: 2010 

109 Think Tank V Response Strategies to Climate Change Impacts file 1325 Oct 13, 2013

This study addresses the threat of climate change impacts on the sustainability of the economic benefits for, and environmental assets of, tourism destinations. It discusses the challenges for both the demand and supply side of tourism to fo...

Author: Nancy Scanlon 

Year: 2005 

108 Think Tank XIX Innovation Generator. Ideas for Sustainable Tourism Pr... file 1324 Oct 23, 2019

Key words: Innovation generator, Sustainable tourism, Alps, projects, Switzerland Page: 208-213 Innovation Generator.pdf Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Norma...

Author: Fabian Weber 

Year: 2019 

107 Think Tank XVII Providing sustainable innovations in the hospitality i... file 1307 Aug 17, 2017

Sustainability and eco-friendliness is gaining considerable attention within the hotel industry (Chen, Sloan & Legrand, 2009; Kim & Han, 2010). There has been a growing awareness of the environmental and social influence of hotel ope...

Author: Julia Zimmermann & Matthias Straub 

Year: 2017 

106 Think Tank XV The social enterprise as a vehicle to poverty alleviat... file 1300 Jul 27, 2015

Over the last decades, social enterprises have increasingly gained importance in the travel and tourism industry and they are revolutionizing the way business is done. Instead of maximizing profits for external shareholders, a social enterpr...

Author: Sebastian Ferrari & Dagmar Lund-Durlacher 

Year: 2015 

105 Think Tank XV Conserving biodiversity as tourism (including wildlife... 1292 Jul 27, 2015

Governments throughout Australia and elsewhere recognise that tourism is an important sector of the economy, and are encouraging its growth in a variety of ways, some more environmentally sound than others. This papers presents not the resul...

Author: Ronda J Green 

Year: 2015 

104 Think Tank XVII E-Mobility as an Innovation for a Sustainable Destinat... file 1287 Aug 17, 2017

The project "E-Destination” funded by Internationale Bodenseehochschule (IBH) aims to show whether and in what form electro-mobility can play a bigger role regarding tourism in the rural region of Lake Constance (in German: Bodensee), Baden-...

Author: Tatjana Thimm 

Year: 2017 

103 Think Tank XIX Designing sustainable tourist experiences – (how) does... file 1229 Oct 23, 2019

Key words: Nature Parks, sustainable tourism, customer journey, sustainable development, behaviour change Page: 188-193 Designing sustainable tourist experiences.pdf Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ tabl...

Author: Birgit Reutz 

Year: 2019 

102 Think Tank XV A modified value chainanalysisoftourism development in... file 1160 Jul 27, 2015

Tourism development in a relatively unknown country is faced with various challenges. The difficulty is not only choosing an appropriate tourism development strategy but also managing it in a complex sociocultural, economic and political env...

Author: Sonja Frommenwiler & Péter Varga 

Year: 2015 

OPA: Runner Up Outstanding Paper Award 

101 Think Tank XVIII Community participation and stakeholder engagement in ... file 1127 Jan 07, 2019

Keywords: natural resource management, community participation, stakeholder engagement, co-creation, sustainable tourism, Networks of Reserves.

Author: Umberto Martini, Federica Buffa, Sandra Notaro, Nicola Zeni & Pier Luigi Novi Inverardi 

Year: 2018 

100 Think Tank XVII Travelers Satisfaction with Dimensions of Tourist Tert... file 1116 Aug 17, 2017

Loyalty of customers is recognized as a key ingredient for the success of organisations. A 5% increase in customer retention has been linked to 85% increase in profits (Reichfield and Sasser, 1990). As noted by Assael (1984), long term organ...

Author: Boopendra Seetanah & Viraiyan Teeroovengadum & Kesseven Padachi 

Year: 2017 

99 Think Tank XVI Communicating sustainability values of wine producers file 1101 Jul 02, 2016

This paper examines visual design language used in the New Zealand wine industry to communicate values of sustainability. The contribution critically discusses how industry values are physically manifested in and communicated through imager...

Author: Tobias Danielmeier 

Year: 2016 

98 Think Tank XVI The Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility: An ove... file 1100 Jul 02, 2016

In the tourism industry, whilst some companies have taken active steps towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), others are yet to adopt a responsible approaching to business. According to Betz (2010), CSR is a relatively new concept i...

Author: Susanne Reimann & Sandro Carnicelli 

Year: 2016 

97 Think Tank XV Environmental Practices and Hotels’ Performance: an em... file 1093 Jul 27, 2015

Firms are nowadays facing growing pressure from governments and environmental institutions to reduce their ecological footprint. While a growing number of empirical studies have examined the impact of green management policies on firms’ fina...

Author: Christelle Cortese & Mondher Sahli 

Year: 2015 

96 Think Tank XVII Transit Tours for Airport Passengers – Issues and Chal... file 1006 Aug 17, 2017

Since the advent of liberalisation of the aviation industry in the late 1970s, many countries have adopted the liberal policy in air transport and entered bilateral air service agreements, often referred to as “open skies agreements” (OSAs),...

Author: Priscilla Chau Min Poon 

Year: 2017 

95 Think Tank XVI The influence of environmental attitudes and concerns ... file 991 Jul 02, 2016

This study investigates environmental attitudes and concerns of Germans tourists towards climate change. Furthermore it analyses if there are attempts to neutralise air travel emissions by means of voluntary carbon-offsetting. Past research...

Author: Isabell Wulfsberg, Dirk Reiser, Volker Rundshagen & Nicolai Scherle 

Year: 2016