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RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Larry Dwyer & Peter Forsyth
School/Work Place : University of New South Wales, Australia (Larry Dwyer) & Monash University, Australia (Peter Forsyth)
Contact : l.dwyer@unsw.edu.au, peter.forsyth@buseco.monash.edu.au
Year : 2009

Price competitiveness is one of the most important factors in the overall tourism competitiveness of a country or a destination. There is widely accepted evidence that prices are one of the most important factors in decisions about whether, and where, to undertake trips. This is reflected in the Travel &Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), where, in Pillar 10, Price Competitiveness is assessed using four sets of hard data, on Ticket Taxes and Airport Charges (10.01), National Purchasing Power Parity prices (10.03) Fuel Price levels (10.04) and the Hotel Price Index (10.05).

Not surprisingly, given its importance, many have developed or used indicators of Tourism Price Competitiveness. These indicators vary considerable. It is possible to find indicators based on detailed prices which tourists pay in different countries, along with some highly aggregated and proxy measures. Different indicators shed light on different aspects of competitiveness, and the measures which are most useful for a purpose depend on what questions are being explored. Some of the key aspects which condition which indicators should be used are:

  • The need for accuracy and tourism specific detail versus timeliness. More detailed and accurate measures involve more data collection and processing, and thus they take longer to produce. If timeliness is of essence, it may be necessary to rely on broader proxies for price competitiveness which can be obtained readily.
  • The need for cross country (or cross destination) comparisons of the prices tourists are actually paying. If cross country comparisons of tourism competitiveness at a point of time are required, it is necessary to obtain data on the prices of tourism goods and services in different countries. There are relatively few sources of these data, and they tend to appear with a lag.
  • The need for estimates of changes in relative price competitiveness over time. For some purposes, only the change in relative price competitiveness of countries is needed. If so, changes in the patterns of competitiveness can be estimated using price change data (often obtained from countries’ CPI statistics) and exchange rate data. These are much more easily obtained than actual cross country price comparisons.
  • The need to provide overall summary measures of a country’s price competitiveness at a point of time or changes in it over time. It may be useful to have summary measures which can tell whether, overall, a country’s price competitiveness in tourism has risen or fallen. Such measures require that the detailed measures of price competitiveness be aggregated in some way.

Measures of tourism price competitiveness of countries or destinations (such as individual regions or cities) form part of more general work on destination competitiveness. Destination competitiveness is a general concept that encompasses price differentials coupled with exchange rate movements, productivity levels of various components of the tourist industry and qualitative factors affecting the attractiveness or otherwise of a destination. The development of the Travel & Tourism Competiveness Index allows tourism stakeholders in both the private and public sector to: identify key strengths and weaknesses of their destination from the visitor perspective; highlight opportunities for tourism development; and develop strategies to counter possible threats to future visitation. The focus of this review is country or destination price competitiveness.

In this chapter we outline a range of tourism price competitiveness indicators which have been developed and used. Some are more useful and valuable than others, and all have their advantages and disadvantages. We begin by motivating the review with a discussion of the importance of price as a factor determining competitiveness. We then explore some comprehensive measures of cross country price competitiveness. After this, we note some measures which can be used for examining changes in patterns of competitiveness over time, and patterns of competitiveness in specific sectors. Next we outline some summary measures which can be used to track a country’s or sectors’ competitiveness over time. The determinants of price competitiveness are then briefly reviewed, and the impacts on it of government policy and macroeconomic conditions are briefly discussed. We conclude by putting the measures into perspective with a review of the properties and potential uses of the different measures.


List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
194 Think Tank XII Mobile Learning for Sustainable Tourism Development: T... file 3522 Nov 06, 2013

This paper examines how mobility in higher tourism education may contribute to a dynamic leaning environment capable of integrating transnational and intercultural learning for sustainable tourism development. Central to this is the opening ...

Author: Janne J. Liburd 

Year: 2012 

193 Think Tank XI Learning for Sustainable Tourism: Small and Medium Ent... file 3513 Oct 14, 2013

This abstract intends to present QUSS – an integrated Management System for Quality, Sustainability and Safety in theory and practice. QUSS was invented by the NGO Ecocamping and is thus basically applied on camp sites in Europe with focus ...

Author: Tatjana Thimm 

Year: 2011 

192 Think Tank IV The Benefits of Visitor and Non-Visitor Research in th... file 3503 Oct 13, 2013

Our premise in this paper is that if sustainable tourism development and management is to meet the needs of both the present and the future then it is equally important to prioritise research on those who visit tourism destinations (and incl...

Author: Pat Sterry & Debra Leighton 

Year: 2004 

191 Think Tank VI Family Businesses and Sustainable Tourism: the Role of... file 3471 Oct 13, 2013

Family businesses, that is, businesses owned and/or operated my members of a single family, are predominant in Western economies. This is also an important category of business within tourism hospitality, particularly in rural areas where r...

Author: Janne J. Liburd & Jack Carlsen 

Year: 2006 

190 Think Tank IV A Framework for the Development of Social and Socio-Ec... file 3466 Oct 13, 2013

This paper presents the background thinking to a CRC for Sustainable Tourism project that develops social and socio-economic indicators for tourism communities. The project emanates from the Green Globe 21 Standard that incorporates indicato...

Author: Margaret Deery, Leo Jago & Liz Fredline 

Year: 2004 

189 OPA award Sustainable Tourism on a Mass Tourism Island: An Explo... file 3460 Oct 23, 2019

Key words: sustainable tourism, mass tourism, sustainable urban development, environmental sustainability Page: 86-114 Sustainable Tourism on a Mass Tourism Island.pdf Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ ta...

Author: Kate Devor Leuhusen 

Year: 2019 

188 Think Tank XIV Residents' Support for Tourism from the Standpoint of ... file 3444 Jun 26, 2014

Therefore, being of a different nature than sustainability pillars, political sustainability (Mihalic et al., 2012) is a requirement for sustainable tourism development (Edgell, DelMastro Allen, Smith & Swanson, 2008; UNWTO, 2004). This ...

Author: Tanja Mihalič, Tina Šegota, Ljubica Knežević Cvelbar, Kir Kuščer 

Year: 2014 

187 Think Tank IV Sustainable Tourism and Innovation in Mobile Tourism S... file 3406 Oct 13, 2013

This paper presents a joint public and private sector research project entitled Mobile Digital City and Nature Walks - the development of content and software for a mobile tourism device. Focusing on sustainable tourism, marketing and innova...

Author: Janne J. Liburd 

Year: 2004 

186 Think Tank XV Deconstruction of Man-nature Dialogue Nexus: A Critica... file 3403 Jul 27, 2015

The relationship between man and nature dates back to the millennia. The intimacy of man-nature interaction increased with decreasing healthy nature, as man’s insatiable desire to know and control nature as a commodity becomes more dynamical...

Author: Michael Kweku Commeh 

Year: 2015 

185 Think Tank IV Mass-ski Tourism in the Dolomites and Sustainability: ... file 3394 Oct 13, 2013

The aim of this paper is to highlight the impact of mass-ski tourism on the environment in the Dolomites (Italian Alps), where in winter the principal activities are snow sports. In implementing this development model the Dolomite region has...

Author: Mariangela Franch, Umberto Martini, Pier Luigi Novi Inverardi, Federica Buffa, Pietro Marzani & Maria Della Lucia 

Year: 2004 

OPA: 2004 Runner Up 

184 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees in Susta... file 3384 Oct 13, 2013

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has developed significantly over the last decade and has taken on a myriad of meanings. For many companies, it is a philosophy that helps guide their actions in the external environment. E...

Author: Margaret Deery & Leo Jago 

Year: 2006 

183 OPA award Active community participation in nature conservation ... file 3359 Jul 27, 2015

This paper provides a conceptual framework of community- based nature conservation and tourism (CBC-T). The following themes are guiding discussions in this study, i.e.: land rights of local communities in and around protected areas; communi...

Author: Jones Muzirambi & Kevin Mearns 

Year: 2015 

OPA: 2015 Outstanding Paper Award Winner 

182 Think Tank XIV Hospitality of Sustainable Tourism Encounters: Experie... file 3329 Jun 26, 2014

Global tourism is, at least to some extent, based upon to the vast inequalities between wealthy and impoverished (Cole & Morgan 2010, xv). Neglecting, or actively forgetting, the legacy of colonialism and the modern forms of economic and...

Author: Emily Höckert 

Year: 2014 

181 Think Tank XII Slow Travellers - Who Are They, and What Motivates Them? file 3322 Nov 06, 2013

Tourism’s contribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is estimated to be around 5% and is forecast to grow rapidly, to around 16% of global emissions by 2020. Future strategies for mitigation must address the levels of demand for t...

Author: Derek Robbins & Jaedong Cho 

Year: 2012 

OPA: 2012 Outstanding Paper Award Winner 

180 Think Tank VI Authenticity in Cultural Heritage Tourism as a means t... file 3308 Oct 13, 2013

This work aims through a clarification of philosophical assumptions to define authenticity in a dialogical perspective on the premise that there is a linkage between authenticity and sustainability. This paper will to discuss the development...

Author: Bente Bramming 

Year: 2006 

179 Think Tank XII The Way Forward: Event Management Education and the Fu... file 3302 Nov 06, 2013

The 2011 BESTEN Think Tank XI highlighted a number of issues and themes related to education and learning for sustainable tourism. The themes addressed issues such as learning tools for sustainability, sustainability courses and curricula an...

Author: Olga Junek, Leonie Lockstone-Binney & Martin Robertson 

Year: 2012 

178 Think Tank XIV Influence of Assets and Capital Structure on the Perfo... file 3294 Jun 26, 2014

The global economic and financial crisis could be seen as old news according to the UNWTO’s data on international tourist arrivals. Europe recorded a solid 5% growth in 2013, and Mediterranean countries performed even better with 6% growth i...

Author: Kir Kuščer & Domen Trobec 

Year: 2014 

177 Think Tank V Effects of SARS Crisis on the Economic Contribution of... file 3289 Oct 13, 2013

In a context of uncertainty over traveller security, tourism experienced two major crises in 2003- the Iraq War and SARS. While the relative impacts of a complex array of impacts on travel decisionmaking are almost impossible to dissect, thi...

Author: Larry Dwyer, Peter Forsyth & Ray Spurr 

Year: 2005 

176 Think Tank IV Environmental Attitudes of Tourism Activity Providers ... file 3283 Oct 13, 2013

This paper looks at the issue of environmental awareness and the related topic of 'ecolabels' in a New Zealand context, adopting a supplier's perspective to gain a greater insight into the attitudes of those managing and providing tourism pr...

Author: Christian Schott 

Year: 2004 

175 Think Tank VI National Park as a Social Corporation file 3275 Oct 13, 2013

The issue is discussed how authorities of National Parks that aim to preserve biosphere can enlarge income. A review indicates that many Parks generate high income from tourism. A Dutch case illustrates that one can find sustainable innovat...

Author: Yoram Krozer & Else Christensen-Redzepovic 

Year: 2006 

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