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RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Aphirom Promchanya
School/Work Place : University of Perpignan, France
Contact : tongleave@yahoo.com
Year : 2006

Ecotourism, which typically involves nature-based tourism, plays an increasing role in today's environmental management. As environmental conservation has, in many cases, suffered from a limited budget, funding ecotourism is perceived as a way to provide additional resources to finance environmental conservation efforts. In some cases, revenue generated from ecotourism can be substantial and can be used to provide alternative employment/income to local residents. This alternative employment also helps to reduce the pressure on encroachment and environmental destruction by the local people. Ecotourism is, thus, seen here as a vehicle for sustainable development.

As ecotourism involves human interaction with nature, it inevitably asserts a pressure on the environment. Overcrowding, waste and littering, pollution or commercialization resulting from ecotourism can also accelerate environment destruction. For this reason, there is a need to carefully promote ecotourism so that it will not become an additional threat to the environment. For ecotourism to benefit society but not damage natural heritage, it has to recognize the carrying capacity of the environment and not expand beyond that threshold.

Controlling ecotourism within the limit of the carrying capacity of the environment can be accomplished via sound management techniques (park management) or the use of economic instruments such as user charges (or entrance fees), various kinds of taxes, and imposing a limit on the number of visitors or tradable permits. These economic instruments aim to control ecotour activities so that the marginal benefit (revenue) equals the marginal social and private cost (environmental damage plus opportunity cost of all inputs) and, hence, maximize the net social welfare to society.

In a recent literature review found that only relaxation exceeded learning in importance as a motivator for many leisure activities. They found that from analysis of a number of studies, considerable gains occurred in factual knowledge, recognition memory, and behavior of skills during leisure participation. However, evidence of attitude change was less compelling. The opportunity to learn, whether that learning be cognitive, affective or motor skills development has been an implicit value of travel and tourism. They further agree that what they call the big issues of learning, such as environmental sensitivity and stewardship, pride and commitment to a nation’s heritage, have not been addressed in the context of leisure.

Tourists’ opportunities to learn during their travels are many, though it could be argued that the quality of these learning opportunities varies considerably. Tourists to natural areas (national parks and similar reserves) have long been offered a range of environmental and cultural interpretive opportunities, ranging from interpretive signs, brochures, booklets and other printed material, and personal experiences with rangers and other interpretive guides. Defined interpretation as an educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objectives, by firsthand experience and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information

Interpretation can be though of, then, as a form of non-formal environmental education carried out in a largely recreational setting, in which the visiting population is provided with opportunities to become more aware of particular concepts and phenomena by firsthand experience. Environmental education differs from interpretation in that it is a more formal approach to learning, has a more rigorous structure, and presents information more in the form of information to be learned.

Ecotourism and Environmental Education in Thailand recommended the following key goals of environmental education:

  • To foster clear awareness of, and concern about, economic, social, political and ecological interdependence in urban and rural areas;
  • To provide every person with opportunities to acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment and skills needed to protect and improve the environment;
  • To create new patterns of behaviour of individuals, groups and society as a whole towards the environment.

List of Articles
No. Subject Views Datesort
54 Think Tank VI Authenticity in Cultural Heritage Tourism as a means t... file 2025 Oct 13, 2013

This work aims through a clarification of philosophical assumptions to define authenticity in a dialogical perspective on the premise that there is a linkage between authenticity and sustainability. This paper will to discuss the development...

Author: Bente Bramming 

Year: 2006 

53 Think Tank VI Service Learning in Tourism Educational Programs – A S... file 2710 Oct 13, 2013

A problem in developing new tourism markets remains how to resource them from an existing employment base. Key questions arising are: Do current tourism enterprises have the existing skills to move into these new markets for sustainable tour...

Author: Susan Anita Briggs 

Year: 2006 

52 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility and Employees in Susta... file 2527 Oct 13, 2013

The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has developed significantly over the last decade and has taken on a myriad of meanings. For many companies, it is a philosophy that helps guide their actions in the external environment. E...

Author: Margaret Deery & Leo Jago 

Year: 2006 

51 Think Tank VI Corporate Responsibility as Essential to Sustainable T... file 2085 Oct 13, 2013

For tourism development to have sustainable outcomes at the destination level, business operations must be sustainable. Sustainable development for business means adopting strategies and activities that meet the needs of the enterprise and ...

Author: Larry Dwyer, Liz Fredline, Leo Jago & Margaret Deery 

Year: 2006 

50 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility in the Museum Sector a... file 2843 Oct 13, 2013

Out of a growing concern about the erosion of social infrastructure has come an increase in pressure on business to take up more of the responsibility in meeting community needs (Centre for Corporate Public Affairs, 2000; Loza & Ogilvie...

Author: Deborah Edwards 

Year: 2006 

49 Think Tank VI Sustainable tourist accommodation management: The role... file 3511 Oct 13, 2013

The integration of sustainability within the domain of tourism has recently made considerable progress. For instance, in the UK and the Netherlands, the most important federations of tour operators, the FTO and the ANVR, have introduced obli...

Author: Menno Houtstra 

Year: 2006 

48 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility and Marine Tourism Org... file 3758 Oct 13, 2013

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become an important issue for some governments but the tourism industry appears to be slow in adopting CSR strategies. By focusing on CSR, we argue that the implementation of CSR audits could help t...

Author: Ya-Ting Huang, David Botterill & Eleri Jones 

Year: 2006 

47 Think Tank VI National Park as a Social Corporation file 1317 Oct 13, 2013

The issue is discussed how authorities of National Parks that aim to preserve biosphere can enlarge income. A review indicates that many Parks generate high income from tourism. A Dutch case illustrates that one can find sustainable innovat...

Author: Yoram Krozer & Else Christensen-Redzepovic 

Year: 2006 

46 Think Tank VI Family Businesses and Sustainable Tourism: the Role of... file 2836 Oct 13, 2013

Family businesses, that is, businesses owned and/or operated my members of a single family, are predominant in Western economies. This is also an important category of business within tourism hospitality, particularly in rural areas where r...

Author: Janne J. Liburd & Jack Carlsen 

Year: 2006 

45 Think Tank VI How Sophisticated is the level of E-Commerce Adoption ... file 1647 Oct 13, 2013

The research aims to develop a conceptual model of e-commerce adoption in tourism enterprises. The paper begins with a literature review identifying the opportunities and competitive advantage for tourism enterprises associated with E-commer...

Author: Nina Mistilis & John D’Ambra 

Year: 2006 

44 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility in the Catalan hospita... file 3315 Oct 13, 2013

The practices of CSR have attracted the attention of the investigators, who have prepared a great diversity of theories and the international organisms, which have done recommendations, so that the companies have added them in their strategi...

Author: Ramon Palau 

Year: 2006 

43 Think Tank VI Testing Clarkson’s Typical Corporate and Stakeholder I... file 4988 Oct 13, 2013

In today’s world of growing concern over the social and environmental effect of tourism, the responsibility for the future of our society is moving from simply relying on our political leaders and interest groups towards the concept that cor...

Author: Catrina Papaleo & Sue Beeton 

Year: 2006 

» Think Tank VI Ecotourism and Environmental Education: Opportunities ... file 30696 Oct 13, 2013

Ecotourism, which typically involves nature-based tourism, plays an increasing role in today's environmental management. As environmental conservation has, in many cases, suffered from a limited budget, funding ecotourism is perceived as a w...

Author: Aphirom Promchanya 

Year: 2006 

41 Think Tank VI Ethical Issues in Collaboration in the Aviation Industry file 24434 Oct 13, 2013

The aviation industry is a critical element of any tourism system, and has several secondary effects – a source of employment and foreign exchange earnings. A ‘national carrier’ is also a symbol of the country, a source of pride amongst the ...

Author: Ravi Ravinder 

Year: 2006 

40 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility and Travel & Tourism B... file 3336 Oct 13, 2013

This paper discusses some economic, social, and environmental “hard issues” for the travel and tourism (T&T) industry with the aim of shedding some light on little discussed aspects of industry corporate social responsibility (CSR) with ...

Author: David Stipanuk 

Year: 2006 

39 Think Tank VI Corporate Social Responsibility or Government Interven... file 5817 Oct 13, 2013

Implicit in notions of sustainable development is an holistic triple bottom line approach that seeks to preserve essential ecological processes, protect human heritage and biodiversity and foster inter and intra-generational equity whilst r...

Author: David Wood & Jack Carlsen 

Year: 2006 

38 Think Tank V Political Instability and its Effects on Tourism file 3298 Oct 13, 2013

Tourism today is second only to oil as the world’s leading export commodity, accounting for global earnings of more than $300 billion, or nearly 25 per cent of total world GNP (Poirier 2000, p30, cited in Dieke, 2000). Over the last two deca...

Author: Sarah JR Ryu 

Year: 2005 

37 Think Tank V Framing Tourist Risk in UK Press Accounts of Hurricane... file 3779 Oct 13, 2013

This paper examines the coverage of Hurricane Ivan in the Caribbean published in selected leading UK newspapers in September 2004. Quantitative textual analysis have been utilised in this study to determine the main sources of information on...

Author: Marcella Daye 

Year: 2005 

36 Think Tank V Managing of Public Risks in Tourism: Towards Sustainab... file 2171 Oct 13, 2013

How to manage risks that endanger development of tourism but that are caused by tourism itself? An industry-based model is presented as an analytic tool and adapted to the situation in tourism. It is argued that development of tourism lacks ...

Author: Yoram Krozer & Else Redzepovic 

Year: 2005 

35 Think Tank V Using Theories of Stigma Management and Impression Man... file 3350 Oct 13, 2013

Researchers have noted that impression management is key to tourism crisis management planning and recovery (Ritchie et al., 2003:201); indeed, some have suggested that “crisis management is as much about dealing with human perceptions about...

Author: Bonalyn Nelson 

Year: 2005 

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