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RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Aphirom Promchanya
School/Work Place : University of Perpignan, France
Contact : tongleave@yahoo.com
Year : 2006

Ecotourism, which typically involves nature-based tourism, plays an increasing role in today's environmental management. As environmental conservation has, in many cases, suffered from a limited budget, funding ecotourism is perceived as a way to provide additional resources to finance environmental conservation efforts. In some cases, revenue generated from ecotourism can be substantial and can be used to provide alternative employment/income to local residents. This alternative employment also helps to reduce the pressure on encroachment and environmental destruction by the local people. Ecotourism is, thus, seen here as a vehicle for sustainable development.

As ecotourism involves human interaction with nature, it inevitably asserts a pressure on the environment. Overcrowding, waste and littering, pollution or commercialization resulting from ecotourism can also accelerate environment destruction. For this reason, there is a need to carefully promote ecotourism so that it will not become an additional threat to the environment. For ecotourism to benefit society but not damage natural heritage, it has to recognize the carrying capacity of the environment and not expand beyond that threshold.

Controlling ecotourism within the limit of the carrying capacity of the environment can be accomplished via sound management techniques (park management) or the use of economic instruments such as user charges (or entrance fees), various kinds of taxes, and imposing a limit on the number of visitors or tradable permits. These economic instruments aim to control ecotour activities so that the marginal benefit (revenue) equals the marginal social and private cost (environmental damage plus opportunity cost of all inputs) and, hence, maximize the net social welfare to society.

In a recent literature review found that only relaxation exceeded learning in importance as a motivator for many leisure activities. They found that from analysis of a number of studies, considerable gains occurred in factual knowledge, recognition memory, and behavior of skills during leisure participation. However, evidence of attitude change was less compelling. The opportunity to learn, whether that learning be cognitive, affective or motor skills development has been an implicit value of travel and tourism. They further agree that what they call the big issues of learning, such as environmental sensitivity and stewardship, pride and commitment to a nation’s heritage, have not been addressed in the context of leisure.

Tourists’ opportunities to learn during their travels are many, though it could be argued that the quality of these learning opportunities varies considerably. Tourists to natural areas (national parks and similar reserves) have long been offered a range of environmental and cultural interpretive opportunities, ranging from interpretive signs, brochures, booklets and other printed material, and personal experiences with rangers and other interpretive guides. Defined interpretation as an educational activity which aims to reveal meanings and relationships through the use of original objectives, by firsthand experience and by illustrative media, rather than simply to communicate factual information

Interpretation can be though of, then, as a form of non-formal environmental education carried out in a largely recreational setting, in which the visiting population is provided with opportunities to become more aware of particular concepts and phenomena by firsthand experience. Environmental education differs from interpretation in that it is a more formal approach to learning, has a more rigorous structure, and presents information more in the form of information to be learned.

Ecotourism and Environmental Education in Thailand recommended the following key goals of environmental education:

  • To foster clear awareness of, and concern about, economic, social, political and ecological interdependence in urban and rural areas;
  • To provide every person with opportunities to acquire the knowledge, values, attitudes, commitment and skills needed to protect and improve the environment;
  • To create new patterns of behaviour of individuals, groups and society as a whole towards the environment.

List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
396 Think Tank XVI A study of innovation in the making CARMACAL and the D... file 41 Jul 02, 2016

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Author: Harald Buijtendijk, Jorine Vermeer & Juultje Blom 

Year: 2016 

395 Think Tank XVI Certification for Sustainable Tourism in Germany – Ove... file 41 Jul 02, 2016

Certification schemes for sustainable tourism can be seen as a key voluntary instrument to measure, verify and communicate the CSR management and performance of tourism businesses. Today a large number of such schemes can be found around th...

Author: Wolfgang Strasdas 

Year: 2016 

394 Think Tank XVIII SMTE’s use of SoMe and Sustainability file 41 Jan 07, 2019

Key words: SoMe, Small medium sized tourism enterprises (SMTE’s), Sustainability, Tourism.

Author: Ida Marie Visbech Andersen 

Year: 2018 

393 Think Tank XVI The moderating role of values in planned behaviour: th... file 43 Jul 02, 2016

In the past five years, we (a group of researchers from the Leeds Becket University and the Open University of Catalonia) have been working on different studies about the CSR motivations, barriers and practices in tourism small and medium e...

Author: Lluís Garay, Xavier Font & August Francesc Corrons 

Year: 2016 

392 Think Tank XVI Can Tourism Businesses Foster Better Inclusion for Peo... file 45 Jul 02, 2016

It is difficult to deny that despite its increased popularity, the concept of social entrepreneurship has not received a clearer understanding in a theoretical context. Zahra, Gedajlovic, Neubaum, and Shulman (2009) list 20 definitions of s...

Author: Kristof Tomej 

Year: 2016 

391 Think Tank XVI The Concept of Corporate Social Responsibility: An ove... file 46 Jul 02, 2016

In the tourism industry, whilst some companies have taken active steps towards Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), others are yet to adopt a responsible approaching to business. According to Betz (2010), CSR is a relatively new concept i...

Author: Susanne Reimann & Sandro Carnicelli 

Year: 2016 

390 Think Tank XVI Empowering communities and enabling conservation: Revi... file 47 Jul 01, 2016

The Africa Foundation a non-profit organization was founded in 1992 when Conservation Corporation Africa (since renamed and rebranded to &Beyond) was founded in South Africa. A central principle of the Conservation Corporation, safari l...

Author: Kevin Mearns 

Year: 2016 

389 Think Tank XVI Examining Corporate Social Responsibility in Tourism: ... file 50 Jul 01, 2016

One of the biggest challenges facing the tourism industry and policy makers is the emerging and fast growing ‘sharing economy’. Keeping abreast of this, disruptive but potentially transformative phenomenon has been challenging for industry,...

Author: Stephen Wearing & Kevin Lyons 

Year: 2016 

388 Think Tank XVI Assessing the sustainability reporting of a JSE compan... file 50 Jul 02, 2016

The world is changing into a place where broader spectra of responsibilities are now being embraced. A significant realisation has grown throughout the world that the Earth’s natural resources are scarce. Industrialisation and economic grow...

Author: Candice Hunter & Kevin Mearns 

Year: 2016 

387 Think Tank XVII Collaborative knowledge production development and act... file 53 Aug 17, 2017

Increasingly, literature has depicted food tourism as a powerful contributor to the ‘triple bottom line’ of economic, social, and environmental sustainability in rural communities (e.g. Sidali et al., 2015; Sims, 2009; Everret & Aitchson...

Author: Yukari Higuchi & Yasuhiro Yamanaka 

Year: 2017 

386 Think Tank XVI Influencing sustainability through engagement in polic... file 54 Jul 01, 2016

The ability of businesses to influence the sustainability of tourism development is generally examined from two standpoints: the regulatory frameworks requiring particular actions with respect to how business is carried out, or to clients; ...

Author: Valentina Dinica 

Year: 2016 

385 Think Tank XVI Analysing CSR Practices in Food Operations: A case stu... file 55 Jul 01, 2016

Food consumption is seen by most tourists as an important part of their holiday and tourism often takes place in ecologically, socially and culturally sensitive destinations. Through food consumption, it is not only possible to support heal...

Author: Dagmar Lund-Durlacher, Hannes Antonschmidt & Klaus-Peter Fritz 

Year: 2016 

384 Think Tank XVIII Certification as a tool to identify sustainable touris... file 55 Jan 07, 2019

Key words: Sustainable Tourism Products, Sustainable tourism certification schemes, Certification

Author: Martin Balas & Wolfgang Strasdas 

Year: 2018 

383 Think Tank XVII Responsible tourism and innovation practices by touris... file 59 Aug 17, 2017

Responsible tourism incorporates economic, environmental and social imperatives in accordance with ‘sustainable tourism’ notions (Booyens & Rogerson, 2016a). This research argues that tourism firms need to innovate in order to be economi...

Author: Irma Booyens and Christian M. Rogerson 

Year: 2017 

382 Think Tank XVII Applying water quality as a management tool for the wi... file 59 Aug 17, 2017

Growing human populations led to expanding agriculture and industrial activities, and during the last decade raised international concern as fresh water quality has deteriorated on a global scale. In addition, climate change threatens to cau...

Author: JJ Grobler and KF Mearns 

Year: 2017 

381 Think Tank XVI In Search of a New Mindset to Underpin Tourism Develop... file 63 Jul 01, 2016

Despite widespread recognition of the importance of all tourism stakeholders adopting sustainability attitudes and practices, with a huge descriptive and prescriptive literature highlighting ‘best practice’, things seem to be getting worse....

Author: Larry Dwyer & Verity Anne Greenwood 

Year: 2016 

380 Think Tank XVII New Forms of ‘Responsible Tourism’ in Refugee Camps an... file 63 Aug 17, 2017

Responsible Tourism is about “making better places for people to live in and better places for people to visit”. Traveling responsibly is thus about managing travel and destinations in an environmentally and culturally responsible way and de...

Author: Jaume Guia, Sil van de Velde & Lauren Chan 

Year: 2017 

379 Think Tank XVII Lack of transparency - a barrier for the diffusion of ... file 65 Aug 17, 2017

Throughout the last two decades, the tourism industry has changed due to the revolutionary development in the realm of information and communication technologies (ICT) (Amaro & Duate, 2013; Law et al., 2004; Minghetti & Buhalis, 2010...

Author: Sven-Olaf Gerdt, Elisa Wagner & Gerhard Schewe 

Year: 2017 

378 Think Tank XVII Finding and Fostering Our Future Tourism Leaders: Unde... file 66 Aug 17, 2017

The hospitality and tourism industry is facing a serious skilled manpower shortage globally, and the best way to meet the manpower needs of the industry is through training and education. The shortage of skilled talent is a global issue in t...

Author: Grace K.S. Ho & Rob Law 

Year: 2017 

377 Think Tank XVIII The role of tourism associations in supporting sustain... file 67 Jan 07, 2019

Key words: tourism association, inclusive development, tourism marketing

Author: Niki Glen & Kevin Mearns 

Year: 2018 

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