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RESOURCES: PAPERS & PRESENTATIONS

Author : Jack Carlsen, Janne J. Liburd & Deborah Edwards
School/Work Place : Curtin Sustainable Tourism Centre, Australia (Jack Carlsen), University of Southern Denmark, Denmark (Janne Liburd), University of Technology Sydney, Australia (Deborah Edwards)
Contact : j.carlsen@curtin.edu.au
Year : 2010

This paper highlights the importance of new and established networks that underpin the innovation processes in sustainable tourism. It will draw on published literature as well as case studies to describe the various types of networks that have developed as an integral part of the innovation process (Carlsen et al, 2008). Innovation rarely occurs in isolation. Invariably, collaboration between like-minded individuals or agencies is essential in order to transform an idea or opportunity into a reality. In some cases, the links are not always intuitive or apparent and may come about through serendipity rather than strategy. In other cases, the formation of new networks gives rise to further innovation, creating a virtuous circle of process, product or service innovation. Established networks, such as those developed between government, industry and universities, are also a substantial source of innovation through research, knowledge development and dissemination.

True innovation in tourism businesses is nebulous and often driven by external forces such as changing customer needs, demographics, technology, government policy, environmental conditions, social imperatives or the supplier chain. Innovation in tourism can occur at different operational and sectoral levels and apply in a range of geographic locations. It can take the form of product, process, management or institutional innovations (Hjalager, 1996) and may be a disruptive or an incremental process (Schaper and Volery, 2007).

Innovation “remains fundamentally an application of knowledge” (Schaper and Volery 2007:64), which is best achieved through networks that serve as both repositories and generators of innovative ideas and information. There has since been a proliferation of product, process, managerial and institutional innovations that have embraced sustainability and this paper describes and analyses just a few examples of these. Hjalager (1996) indicates that networks are an integral part of the process of innovation, which often involves ‘redefinitions of interrelationships between actors’ (Hjalager, 1996, p. 202), although these relationships may be cooperative or confrontational, both still stimulate innovation (Tremblay, 2002). Hausman (2005) also finds that ‘ideological innovations, such as new management practices’ involve new partnerships as well as new ideas. Laing et al suggest that partnerships provide a means for the diffusion of innovations (Laing et al, forthcoming). Liburd and Hergesell (2007) recognise the importance of training, education and employee retention and succession to improve learning and innovation for sustainable tourism in the European North Sea Region.

People, as customers or operators, are at the core of innovation in tourism. Hence networks are critical and the social and cultural environment has to be supportive of innovative ideas and opportunities if they are to be realized. To shed light on this conversation cross-case analysis (Patton 1990) was applied to eight case studies to compare and contrast the different types and contexts of innovation and for an integrated overview of the network drivers, processes and barriers for innovation.


List of Articles
No. Subject Viewssort Date
414 Think Tank VI Ecotourism and Environmental Education: Opportunities ... file 49211 Oct 13, 2013

Ecotourism, which typically involves nature-based tourism, plays an increasing role in today's environmental management. As environmental conservation has, in many cases, suffered from a limited budget, funding ecotourism is perceived as a w...

Author: Aphirom Promchanya 

Year: 2006 

413 Think Tank XIV Tropical Communities as Resources for Tourism or Touri... file 47435 Jun 26, 2014

The purpose of this paper is to review the barriers to sustainable tourism development faced by rural and developing regions and to explore the notion of tourism and its potential contribution to community well-being, with a focus on Flora’s...

Author: Laurie Murphy, Gianna Moscardo & Anna Blackman 

Year: 2014 

412 Think Tank XII Integrated Planning of Sustainable Tourism and Mobilit... file 33826 Nov 06, 2013

Emerging tourist market trends are pushing destinations to consider mobility an essential strategic component of sustainable tourism planning. Destination Management needs to use tourism mobility analysis systematically if it wants to seize ...

Author: Anna Scuttari, Maria Della Lucia & Umberto Martini 

Year: 2012 

OPA: 2012 Runner Up 

411 Think Tank VI Ethical Issues in Collaboration in the Aviation Industry file 32841 Oct 13, 2013

The aviation industry is a critical element of any tourism system, and has several secondary effects – a source of employment and foreign exchange earnings. A ‘national carrier’ is also a symbol of the country, a source of pride amongst the ...

Author: Ravi Ravinder 

Year: 2006 

410 Think Tank XIV Implementation and Governance of Hotel Chain's CSR pol... file 32740 Jun 26, 2014

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has gained increasing importance in the tourism industry over the past two decades, making it a central aspect of many business strategies. Many international hotel corporations have integrated CSR polic...

Author: Dagmar Lund-Durlacher & Carolin Brewi 

Year: 2014 

409 Think Tank XII Barriers and Benefits to Professional Development: Per... file 24009 Nov 06, 2013

This paper builds upon the body of literature on tourism mobilities by considering supply-side perspectives as it relates to workforce planning and preparation. Research into tourism destination competitiveness has suggested that for a touri...

Author: Kevin Lyons, Joanne Hanley & Tamara Young 

Year: 2012 

408 Think Tank XII The Climate Footprint of Nature-based Tourism - The ca... file 19262 Nov 06, 2013

Nature-based tourism is a form of travel that is often believed to lend itself more to sustainable development than other tourism segments. In fact, the concept of ecotourism – defined as nature tourism that is sustainable – was developed in...

Author: Wolfgang Strasdas 

Year: 2012 

407 Think Tank XVII Overtourism. An analysis of contextual factors contrib... file 15923 Aug 17, 2017

Tourism is a rapidly growing industry and has far-reaching economic, social and environmental impact. The rapid growth of tourism is a challenge for many destinations. But growth in tourist numbers is not the only reason for the many problem...

Author: Fabian Weber 

Year: 2017 

406 Think Tank VII Tourist Perceptions of Environmentally Friendly Innova... file 15682 Oct 13, 2013

As the environmental movement got underway and environmental awareness came into focus in the late 20th century, the tourism industry began incorporating 'environmentally friendly' efforts into their business practices. Requests for towel r...

Author: Kathleen L. Andereck 

Year: 2007 

405 Think Tank XIII Conceptualising a Framework to Analyse the Factors Inf... file 15357 Nov 06, 2013

As the tourism industry continues to grow globally, sustainable tourism development has drawn interests among researchers, practitioners, governments and stakeholders. There are several studies on the local residents’ support for tourism, lo...

Author: Samuel Folorunso Adeyinka-Ojo, Catheryn Khoo-Lattimore & Vikneswaran Nair 

Year: 2013 

404 Think Tank IV Impediments to Sustainable Service Quality in Luxury H... file 15196 Oct 13, 2013

In order for tourism to be sustainable in the long term, there must be continued viability of tourism related entities (Tesone 2004), that is business operations must be sustainable. Hotels are major tourism entities and play an important ro...

Author: Rayka Presbury 

Year: 2004 

403 Think Tank XI Broad Street Regeneration Initiative: Practical Sustai... file 15178 Dec 19, 2013

Professors of tourism management teach principles of sustainable tourism to students in the classroom. Practitioners teach by implementing sustainable tourism principles in community. The Blackstone Valley Tourism Council (Tourism Council) i...

Author: Robert Billington, Natalie Carter, Caitlin Amos & Myles Ellison 

Year: 2011 

402 Think Tank X Sustainable Tourism Pedagogy and Student Community Col... file 14626 Oct 14, 2013

There have been increasing calls to move away from the traditional disciplinary structures and research, teaching and learning approaches that have tended to ‘tunnel’ student learning and reinforce particular worldviews towards new forms of ...

Author: Tazim Jamal, Justin Taillon & Dianne Dredge 

Year: 2010 

401 Think Tank XI Sustainable Tourism Course Structure and Associated St... file 13602 Oct 14, 2013

The author has developed and delivered Sustainable Tourism (S.T.) related courses at Institutions of Higher Education in Paris, London, Helsinki, and Parnu, Estonia over the last 10 years. The focus of the presentation would be the S.T. con...

Author: James Holleran 

Year: 2011 

400 Think Tank XII Enhancing Stakeholders' Participation in Community-Bas... file 13432 Nov 06, 2013

Although the iconic floating markets in Thailand have been promoted both domestically and internationally, without a well-planned tourism initiative, virtually all of them have lost their authenticity. To preserve the culture of the Don-Mano...

Author: Nopparat Suthitakon, Sombat Karnjanakit & Suchart Taweepornpathomgul 

Year: 2012 

399 Think Tank XIII Tourism investment and sustainable development: A comp... file 12706 Nov 06, 2013

Despite the growing importance of foreign direct investment (FDI) for tourism in developing countries and its perceived importance for stimulating sustainable development, few empirical studies have examined its impact. This paper explored t...

Author: Lee Davidson & Mondher Sahli 

Year: 2013 

398 Think Tank XIII Using Tourism to Build Social Capital in Communities: ... file 12614 Nov 06, 2013

Despite considerable discussion about how tourism could or should contribute to sustainable destination development, there is little evidence that the practice of tourism planning or development has altered in any significant way in the last...

Author: Gianna Moscardo, Andrea Schurmann, Elena Konovalov & Nancy G. McGehee 

Year: 2013 

397 Think Tank VII Tourism Resource Teams: Innovation with and for touris... file 11210 Oct 13, 2013

Communities have a variety of interest levels in tourism overall, including sustainable tourism (WTO, 2002). While we have witnessed increased awareness and discussions about sustainability and sustainable tourism, there is often a lack of s...

Author: Cynthia Messer, Ingrid Schneider & Okechukwu Ukaga 

Year: 2007 

396 Think Tank XI What Do Tourism Students Know About Sustainability and... file 11085 Oct 14, 2013

The topic of sustainable tourism education has only recently started to emerge in the tourism literature. A few tourism scholars have raised concerns about the need to prepare future tourism professionals for real life planning and manageme...

Author: Blanca A. Camargo & Ulrike Gretzel 

Year: 2011 

395 Think Tank V Knowledge Management for Tourism Crises and Disasters file 11084 Oct 13, 2013

Tourism is especially vulnerable to disasters and, being fragmented, often its response is difficult to initiate and coordinate. It is also information intensive and when in chaos its information needs are exacerbated. The paper aims to deve...

Author: Nina Mistilis & Pauline Sheldon 

Year: 2005 

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